Medalha Copley

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Medalha Copley
Medalha Copley entregue a Mendeleev em 1905.
Medalha Copley entregue a Mendeleev em 1905.
Classificação
País  Reino Unido
Outorgante Royal Society
Criação 1709
Tipo Científica
Agraciamento Godfrey Copley
Condição Ativa
Histórico
Primeira concessão 1731

Medalha Copley é um prêmio no domínio das ciências. É a medalha de maior prestígio atribuída pela Royal Society e, também, a mais antiga. Foi concedida pela primeira vez em 1731.

História[editar | editar código-fonte]

A medalha foi criada após uma doação de £ 100 à Sociedade Real, em 1709, por Godfrey Copley, um proprietário de terras em Sprotbrough (próximo a Doncaster, sul de Yorkshire), que foi eleito membro da sociedade em 1691.

É uma das dez medalhas concedidas pela Royal Society. Algumas são anuais, outras concedidas em diferentes intervalos, conforme os termos de atribuição. A Medalha Copley alterna entre as ciências físicas e as ciências da vida. Os laureados são eleitos pelos sócios da Royal Society.

Agraciados[editar | editar código-fonte]

1731 — 1750[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Premiado Nacionalidade Razão Referência
1 1731 Gray, StephenStephen Gray  Reino Unido "Por seus novos experimentos sobre eletricidade: como encorajamento devido à rapidez que sempre mostrou à Royal Society com suas descobertas e melhoramentos nesta parte das ciências naturais" [1]
2 1732 Gray, StephenStephen Gray "Pelos experimentos realizados durante o ano 1732"
1733 Não concedido
3 1734 Desaguliers, John TheophilusJohn Theophilus Desaguliers  França "Em consideração aos seus diversos experimentos apresentados à Royal Society" [2]
1735 Não concedido
4 1736 Desaguliers, John TheophilusJohn Theophilus Desaguliers  França "Por seus experimentos realizados durante o ano" [2]
5 1737 Belchier, JohnJohn Belchier  Reino Unido "Por seu experimento mostrando as propriedades de uma dieta de raízes de garança no tingimento de ossos de animais vivos com uma coloração vermelha" [3]
6 1738 Valoue, JamesJames Valoue "Por sua invenção de uma engenhoca para direcionar os pilares de uma fundação para a ponte a ser construída em Westminster, cujo modelo foi apresentado à Royal Society"
7 1739 Hales, StephenStephen Hales "Por seus experimentos em busca de medicamentos para dissolver cálculos renais, e conservantes para alimentos em longas viagens marítimas" [4]
8 1740 Stuart, AlexanderAlexander Stuart "Por suas aulas sobre o movimento muscular. Em adição a seus serviços prestados à Royal Society" [5]
9 1741 Desaguliers, John TheophilusJohn Theophilus Desaguliers  França "For his Experiments towards the discovery of the properties of Electricity. As an addition to his allowance (as Curator) for the present year." [2]
10 1742 Middleton, ChristopherChristopher Middleton  Reino Unido "For the communication of his Observations in the attempt of discovering a North-West passage to the East Indies through Hudsons Bay" [6]
11 1743 Trembley, AbrahamAbraham Trembley Suíça "For his Experiments on the Polypus"
12 1744 Baker, HenryHenry Baker  Reino Unido "For his curious Experiments relating to the Crystallization or Configuration of the minute particles of Saline Bodies dissolved in a menstruum" [7]
13 1745 Watson, WilliamWilliam Watson "On account of the surprising discoveries in the phenomena of Electricity, exhibited in his late Experiments" [8]
14 1746 Robins, BenjaminBenjamin Robins "On account of his curious Experiments for showing the resistance of the Air, and his rules for establishing his doctrine thereon for the motion of Projectiles" [9]
15 1747 Knight, GowinGowin Knight "On account of several very curious Experiments exhibited by him, both with Natural and Artificial Magnets" [10]
16 1748 Bradley, JamesJames Bradley "On account of his very curious and wonderful discoveries in the apparent motion of the Fixed Stars, and the causes of such apparent motion" [11]
17 1749 Harrison, JohnJohn Harrison "On account of those very curious Instruments, invented and made by him, for the exact mensuration of Time" [12]
18 1750 Edwards, GeorgeGeorge Edwards "On account of a very curious Book lately published by him, and intiyled, A Natural History of Birds, &c. - containing the Figures elegantly drawn, and illuminated in their proper colours, of 209 different Birds, and about 20 very rare Quadrupeds, Serpents, Fishes, and Insects." [13]

1751 — 1800[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Premiado Nação Razão Referência
19 1751 Canton, JohnJohn Canton  Reino Unido "On account of his communicating to the Society, and exhibiting before them, his curious method of making Artificial Magnets without the use of Natural ones" [14]
20 1752 Pringle, JohnJohn Pringle Escócia "On account of his very curious and useful Experiments and Observations on Septic and Anti-septic Substances, communicated to the Society" [15]
21 1753 Franklin, BenjaminBenjamin Franklin  Estados Unidos "On account of his curious Experiments and Observations on Electricity" [16]
22 1754 Lewis, WilliamWilliam Lewis  Inglaterra "For the many Experiments made by him on Platina, which tend to the discovery of the sophistication of gold: - which he would have entirely completed, but was obliged to put a stop to his further enquiries for want of materials" [17]
23 1755 Huxham, JohnJohn Huxham  Reino Unido "For his many useful Experiments on Antimony, of which an account had been read to the Society" [18]
1756 Não concedido
24 1757 Cavendish, CharlesCharles Cavendish  Reino Unido "On account of his very curious and useful invention of making Thermometers, showing respectively the greatest degrees of heat and cold which have happened at any time during the absence of the observer" [10]
25 1758 Dollond, JohnJohn Dollond  Inglaterra "On account of his curious Experiments and Discoveries concerning the different refrangibility of the Rays of Light, communicated to the Society" [19]
26 1759 Smeaton, JohnJohn Smeaton "On account of his curious Experiments concerning Water-wheels and Wind-mill Sails, communicated to the Society. For his experimental enquiry concerning the powers of water and wind in the moving of Mills" [20]
27 1760 Benjamin WilsonBenjamin Wilson "For his many curious Experiments in Electricity, communicated to the Society within the year" [21]
1761 Não concedido
1762
1763
28 1764 Canton, JohnJohn Canton  Reino Unido "For his very ingenious and elegant Experiments in the Air Pump and Condensing Engine, to prove the Compressibility of Water, and some other Fluids" [14]
1765 Não concedido
29 1766 Brownrigg, WilliamWilliam Brownrigg,
Edward Delaval e
Henry Cavendish
 Reino Unido "For an experimental enquiry into the Mineral Elastic Spirit, or Air, contained in Spa-Water; as well as into the Mephitic qualities of this Spirit. (Brownrigg) For his Experiments and Observations on the agreement between the specific gravities of the several Metals, and their colours when united to glass, as well as those of their other preparations. (Delaval) For his Paper communicated this present year, containing his Experiments relating to Fixed Air. (Cavendish)" [22]
30 1767 John EllisJohn Ellis  Irlanda "For his Papers of the year 1767, On the animal nature of the Genus of Zoophytes called Corallina, and the Actinia Sociata, or Clustered Animal Flower, lately found on the sea coasts of the new-ceded Islands" [23]
31 1768 Woulfe, PeterPeter Woulfe "For his Experiments on the Distillation of Acids, Volatile Alkalies, and other substances" [24]
32 1769 Hewson, WilliamWilliam Hewson  Inglaterra "For his Two Papers, entitled, An Account of the Lymphatic System in Amphibious Animals, - and An Account of the Lymphatic System in Fish"
33 1770 William HamiltonWilliam Hamilton Escócia "For his Paper, entitled, An Account of a Journey to Mount Etna" [25]
34 1771 Raper, MatthewMatthew Raper  Reino Unido "For his paper entitled, An Enquiry into the value of ancient Greek and Roman Money"
35 1772 Priestley, JosephJoseph Priestley "On account of the many curious and useful Experiments contained in his observations"
36 1773 Walsh, JohnJohn Walsh "For his Paper on the Torpedo" [26]
1774 Não concedido
37 1775 Maskelyne, NevilNevil Maskelyne  Inglaterra "In consideration of his curious and laborious Observations on the Attraction of Mountains, made in Scotland, - on Schehallien" [27]
38 1776 Cook, JamesJames Cook  Reino Unido "For his Paper, giving an account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of H.M. Ship the Resolution, during her late voyage round the world. Whose communication to the Society was of such importance to the public" [28]
39 1777 Mudge, JohnJohn Mudge  Inglaterra "On account of his valuable Paper containing directions for making the best Composition for the metals of Reflecting Telescopes; together with a description of the process for grinding, polishing, and giving the best speculum the true parabolic form"
40 1778 Hutton, CharlesCharles Hutton "For his paper, entitled, The force of Fired Gunpowder, and the initial velocity of Cannon Balls, determined by Experiments" [29]
1779 Não concedido
41 1780 Vince, SamuelSamuel Vince  Inglaterra "For his paper, entitled, An investigation of the Principles of Progressive and Rotatory Motion, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [30]
42 1781 Herschel, WilliamWilliam Herschel  Alemanha "For the Communication of his Discovery of a new and singular Star; a discovery which does him particular honour, as, in all probability, this start has been for many years, perhaps ages, within the bounds of astronomic vision, and yet till now, eluded the most diligent researches of other observers" [31]
43 1782 Kirwan, RichardRichard Kirwan  Irlanda "As a reward for the merit of his labours in the science of Chemistry. For his chemical analyses of Salts" [30]
44 1783 Goodricke, JohnJohn Goodricke e
Thomas Hutchins
 Reino Unido "For his discovery of the Period of the Variation of Light in the Star Algol. (Goodricke); For his Experiments to ascertain the point of Mercurial Congelation. (Hutchins)" [30]
45 1784 Waring, EdwardEdward Waring  Inglaterra "For his Mathematical Communications to the Society. For his Paper On the Summation of Series, whose general term is a determinate function of z the distance from the first term of the series" [32]
46 1785 Roy, WilliamWilliam Roy Escócia "For his Measurement of a Base on Hounslow Heath" [33]
1786 Não concedido
47 1787 Hunter, JohnJohn Hunter Escócia "For his three Papers, - On the Ovaria, On the identity of the dog, wolf, and jackall species, and On the anatomy of Whales, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1787" [34]
48 1788 Blagden, CharlesCharles Blagden  Inglaterra "For his two Papers on Congelation, printed in the last (78th) volume of the Philosophical transactions" [35]
49 1789 Morgan, WilliamWilliam Morgan  Reino Unido "For his two Papers on the values of Reversions and Survivorships, printed in the two last volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [36]
1790 Não concedido
50 1791 Rennell, JamesJames Rennell e
Jean-André Deluc
 Inglaterra
Suíça
"For his Paper on the Rate of Travelling as performed by Camels, printed in the last (81st) volume of the Philosophical Transactions" [37]
51 1792 Thompson, BenjaminBenjamin Thompson  Reino Unido "For his various Papers on the Properties and Communication of Heat" [38]
1793 Não concedido
52 1794 Volta, AlessandroAlessandro Volta  Itália "For his several Communications explanatory of certain Experiments published by Professor Galvani"
53 1795 Ramsden, JesseJesse Ramsden  Inglaterra "For his various inventions and improvements in the construction of the Instruments for the Trigonometrical measurements carried on by the late Major General Roy, and by Lieut. Col. Williams and his associates" [39]
54 1796 Atwood, GeorgeGeorge Atwood "For his Paper on the construction and analysis of geometrical propositions determining the positions assumed by homogeneal bodies which float freely, and at rest; and also determining the Stability of Ships and other floating bodies" [40]
1797 Não concedido
55 1798 Shuckburgh-Evelyn, GeorgeGeorge Shuckburgh-Evelyn e
Charles Hatchett
 Inglaterra "For his various Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Evelyn); For his Chemical Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Hatchett)" [41]
56 1799 Hellins, JohnJohn Hellins "For his improved Solution of a problem in Physical Astronomy, &c. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1798; and his other Mathematical Papers" [42]
57 1800 Howard, Edward CharlesEdward Charles Howard  Reino Unido "For his Paper on a New Fulminating Mercury" [43]

1801 — 1850[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Premiado Nacionalidade Razão Referência
58 1801 Cooper, AstleyAstley Cooper  Inglaterra "For his Papers - on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of Deafness" [44]
59 1802 Wollaston, William HydeWilliam Hyde Wollaston  Reino Unido "For his various Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [45]
60 1803 Chenevix, RichardRichard Chenevix  Irlanda "For his various Chemical Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [46]
61 1804 Tennant, SmithsonSmithson Tennant  Inglaterra "For his various Chemical Discoveries communicated to the Society, and printed in several volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [47]
62 1805 Davy, HumphryHumphry Davy "For his various Communications published in the Philosophical Transactions" [48]
63 1806 Knight, Thomas AndrewThomas Andrew Knight  Reino Unido "For his various Papers on Vegetation, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [49]
64 1807 Home, EverardEverard Home "For his various Papers on Anatomy and Physiology, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
65 1808 Henry, WilliamWilliam Henry  Inglaterra "For his various papers communicated to the society, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
66 1809 Troughton, EdwardEdward Troughton  Reino Unido "For the Account of his Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments, printed in the last volume of the Philosophical Transactions" [50]
1810 Não concedido
67 1811 Brodie, Benjamin CollinsBenjamin Collins Brodie  Reino Unido "For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. On the influence of the Brain on the action of the Heart, and the generation of Animal Heat; and on the different modes in which death is brought on by certain Vegetable Poisons" [51]
1812 Não concedido
68 1813 Brande, William ThomasWilliam Thomas Brande  Reino Unido "For his Communications concerning the Alcohol contained in Fermented Liquors and other Papers, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
69 1814 Ivory, JamesJames Ivory  Estados Unidos "For his various Mathematical Contributions printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [52]
70 1815 Brewster, DavidDavid Brewster Escócia "For his Paper on the Polarization of Light by Reflection from Transparent Bodies" [53]
1816 Não concedido
71 1817 Kater, HenryHenry Kater  Inglaterra "For his Experiments on the Pendulum" [54]
72 1818 Seppings, RobertRobert Seppings "For his Papers on the construction of Ships of War, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1819 Não concedido
73 1820 Hans Christian Ørsted  Dinamarca "For his Electro-magnetic Discoveries" [55]
74 1821 Sabine, EdwardEdward Sabine e
John Herschel
 Inglaterra "For his various Communications to the Royal Society relating to his researches made in the late Expedition to the Arctic Regions. (Sabine) For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Herschel)" [56]
75 1822 Buckland, WilliamWilliam Buckland  Reino Unido "For his Paper on the Fossil Teeth and Bones discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale" [57]
76 1823 Pond, JohnJohn Pond  Inglaterra
77 1824 Brinkley, JohnJohn Brinkley  Irlanda "For his various Communications to the Royal Society" [58]
78 1825 Arago, FrançoisFrançois Arago e
Peter Barlow
 França
 Inglaterra
"For the Discovery of the Magnetic Properties of substances not containing Iron. For the Discovery of the power of various bodies, principally metallic, to receive magnetic impressions, in the same, though in a more evanescent manner than malleable Iron, and in an infinitely less intense degree. (Arago) For his various Communications on the subject of Magnetism. (Barlow)" [59]
79 1826 South, JamesJames South  Reino Unido "For his observations of Double Stars, and his Paper on the Discordances between the Suns observed and computed Right Ascensions, published in the Transactions of the Society. For his Paper of Observations of the Apparent Distances and Positions of Four Hundred and Fifty-eight Double and Triple Stars, published in the present volume (1826, Part 1.) of the Transactions" [60]
80 1827 Prout, WilliamWilliam Prout e
Henry Foster
"For his Paper, entitled, On the ultimate Composition of simple alimentary substances, with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organized bodies in general" [61]
1828 Não concedido
1829
1830
81 1831 Airy, George BiddellGeorge Biddell Airy  Reino Unido "For his Papers, On the principle of the construction of the Achromatic Eye-pieces of Telescopes, - On the Spherical Aberration of the Eye-pieces of Telescopes, and for other Papers on Optical Subjects in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society" [62]
82 1832 Faraday, MichaelMichael Faraday e
Simeon Poisson
 Reino Unido
 França
"For his discovery of Magneto-Electricity as detailed in his Experimental Researches in Electricity, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year. (Faraday) For his work entitled, Nouvelle Theorie de lAction Capillaire. (Poisson)" [63]
1833 Não concedido
83 1834 Plana, GiovanniGiovanni Plana  Itália "For his work entitled, Theorie du Mouvement de la Lune" [64]
84 1835 Harris, William SnowWilliam Snow Harris  Inglaterra "For his experimental investigations of the force of electricity of high intensity contained in the Philosophical Transactions of 1834" [48]
85 1836 Berzelius, Jöns JacobJöns Jacob Berzelius e
Francis Kiernan
 Suécia
 Irlanda
"For his systematic application of the doctrine of definite proportions to the analysis of mineral bodies, as contained in his Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, and in other of his works. (Bezelius) For his discoveries relating to the structure of the liver, as detailed in his paper communicated to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833. (Kiernan)"
86 1837 Becquerel, Antoine CésarAntoine César Becquerel e
John Frederic Daniell
 França
 Reino Unido
"For his various memoirs on the subject of electricity, published in the Memoires deacademie Royale des Sciences de lInstitut de France, and particularly for those on the production of crystals of metallic sulphurets and of sulphur, by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension, and published in the tenth volume of those Memoires. (Becquerel) For his two papers on voltaic combinations published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836. (Daniell)" [65]
87 1838 Gauss, Carl FriedrichCarl Friedrich Gauss e
Michael Faraday
 Alemanha
 Reino Unido
"For his inventions and mathematical researches in magnetism. (Gauss) For his researches in specific electrical induction. (Faraday)" [66]
88 1839 Brown, RobertRobert Brown Escócia "For his discoveries during a series of years, on the subject of vegetable impregnation" [67]
89 1840 Liebig, Justus vonJustus von Liebig e
Jacques Charles François Sturm
 Alemanha
 França
"For his discoveries in organic chemistry, and particularly for his development of the composition and theory of organic radicals. (Liebig) For his "Memoire sur la Resolution des Equations Numeriques," published in the Memoires des Savans Etrangers for 1835. (Sturm)" [68] [69]
90 1841 Ohm, Georg SimonGeorg Simon Ohm  Alemanha "For his researches into the laws of electric currents contained in various memoirs published in Schweiggers Journal, Poggendorffs Annalen and in a separate work entitled Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet" [70]
91 1842 MacCullagh, JamesJames MacCullagh  Irlanda "For his researches connected with the wave theory of light, contained in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy" [71]
92 1843 Dumas, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Dumas  França "For his late valuable researches in organic chemistry, particularly those contained in a series of memoirs on chemical types and the doctrine of substitution, and also for his elaborate investigations of the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other elements"
93 1844 Matteucci, CarloCarlo Matteucci  Itália "For his various researches in animal electricity" [72]
94 1845 Schwann, TheodorTheodor Schwann  Alemanha "For his physiological researches on the development of animal & vegetable textures, published in his work entitled Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur u. dem Wachsthun der Thiese u. Bflanzen"
95 1846 Verrier, Urbain LeUrbain Le Verrier  França "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus by which he proved the existence and predicted the place of the new Planet; the Council considering such prediction confirmed as it was by the immediate discovery of the Planet to be one of the proudest triumphs of modern analysis applied to the Newtonian Theory of Gravitation" [73]
96 1847 Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel  Inglaterra "For his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825" [56]
97 1848 Adams, John CouchJohn Couch Adams  Reino Unido "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus, and for his application of the inverse problem of perturbations thereto" [74]
98 1849 Murchison, RoderickRoderick Murchison Escócia "For the eminent services he has rendered to geological science during many years of active observation in several parts of Europe; and especially for the establishment of that classification of the older Palaeozoic deposits designated the Silurian System, as set forth in the two works entitled The Silurian System founded on Geological Researches in England, and The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains"
99 1850 Hansen, Peter AndreasPeter Andreas Hansen  Dinamarca "For his researches in physical astronomy" [48]

1851 — 1900[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Premiado Nacionalidade Razão Referência
100 1851 Owen, RichardRichard Owen  Reino Unido "On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works" [75]
101 1852 Humboldt, Alexander vonAlexander von Humboldt  Alemanha "For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years" [76]
102 1853 Dove, Heinrich WilhelmHeinrich Wilhelm Dove "For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth"
103 1854 Müller, Johannes PeterJohannes Peter Müller "For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin" [77]
104 1855 Foucault, LéonLéon Foucault  França "For his various researches in experimental physics" [48]
105 1856 Milne-Edwards, HenriHenri Milne-Edwards "For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology"
106 1857 Chevreul, Michel EugèneMichel Eugène Chevreul "For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, and for his researches on the contrast of coulours" [48]
107 1858 Lyell, CharlesCharles Lyell  Reino Unido "For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology" [48]
108 1859 Weber, WilhelmWilhelm Weber  Alemanha "For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics" [78]
109 1860 Bunsen, RobertRobert Bunsen "For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches" [48]
110 1861 Agassiz, LouisLouis Agassiz Suíça "For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse" [48]
111 1862 Graham, ThomasThomas Graham Escócia "For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861" [79]
112 1863 Sedgwick, AdamAdam Sedgwick  Reino Unido "For his original observations and discoveries in the geology of the Palaeozoic Series of rocks, and more especially for his determination of the characters of the Devonian System, by observations of the order of superposition of the Killas rocks & their fossils in Devonshire" [80]
113 1864 Darwin, CharlesCharles Darwin "For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology" [48]
114 1865 Chasles, MichelMichel Chasles  França "For his historical and original researches in pure geometry" [81]
115 1866 Plücker, JuliusJulius Plücker  Alemanha "For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis" [82]
116 1867 Baer, Karl Ernst vonKarl Ernst von Baer "For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology" [48]
117 1868 Wheatstone, CharlesCharles Wheatstone  Reino Unido "For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism" [48]
118 1869 Regnault, Henri VictorHenri Victor Regnault  França "For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaries au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours" [48]
119 1870 Joule, James PrescottJames Prescott Joule  Reino Unido "For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat" [48]
120 1871 Mayer, Julius vonJulius von Mayer  Alemanha "For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: - 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat" [48]
121 1872 Wöhler, FriedrichFriedrich Wöhler "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones" [48]
122 1873 Helmholtz, Hermann vonHermann von Helmholtz "For his researches in physics and physiology" [83]
123 1874 Pasteur, LouisLouis Pasteur  França "For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine" [48]
124 1875 Hofmann, August Wilhelm vonAugust Wilhelm von Hofmann  Alemanha "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia" [84]
125 1876 Bernard, ClaudeClaude Bernard  França "For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology" [48]
126 1877 Dana, James DwightJames Dwight Dana  Estados Unidos "For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published" [48]
127 1878 Boussingault, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Boussingault  França "For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry" [85]
128 1879 Clausius, RudolfRudolf Clausius  Alemanha "For his well-known researches upon heat" [86]
129 1880 Sylvester, James JosephJames Joseph Sylvester  Inglaterra "For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics" [87]
130 1881 Würtz, Charles AdolpheCharles Adolphe Würtz  França "For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry"
131 1882 Cayley, ArthurArthur Cayley  Reino Unido "For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics" [88]
132 1883 Thomson, WilliamWilliam Thomson "For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics" [89]
133 1884 Ludwig, CarlCarl Ludwig  Alemanha "For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science"
134 1885 Stradonitz, Friedrich August Kekulé vonFriedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz "For his researches in organic chemistry" [48]
135 1886 Neumann, Franz ErnstFranz Ernst Neumann "For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics" [90]
136 1887 Hooker, Joseph DaltonJoseph Dalton Hooker  Inglaterra "For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller" [48]
137 1888 Huxley, Thomas HenryThomas Henry Huxley  Reino Unido "For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years" [48]
138 1889 Salmon, GeorgeGeorge Salmon  Irlanda "For his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the author" [91]
139 1890 Newcomb, SimonSimon Newcomb  Canadá "For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy" [92]
140 1891 Cannizzaro, StanislaoStanislao Cannizzaro  Itália "For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory" [48]
141 1892 Virchow, RudolfRudolf Virchow  Alemanha "For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology" [48]
142 1893 Stokes, George GabrielGeorge Gabriel Stokes  Irlanda "For his researches and discoveries in physical science" [93]
143 1894 Frankland, EdwardEdward Frankland  Inglaterra "For his eminent services to theoretical & applied chemistry" [94]
144 1895 Weierstrass, KarlKarl Weierstrass  Alemanha "For his investigations in pure mathematics" [95]
145 1896 Gegenbaur, KarlKarl Gegenbaur "For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc"
146 1897 Kölliker, Albert vonAlbert von Kölliker Suíça "In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist"
147 1898 Huggins, WilliamWilliam Huggins  Reino Unido "For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies" [48]
148 1899 Rayleigh, LordLord Rayleigh  Inglaterra "In recognition of his contributions to physical science" [96]
149 1900 Berthelot, MarcellinMarcellin Berthelot  França "For his brilliant services to chemical science" [48]

1901 — 1950[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Premiado Nacionalidade Razão Referência
150 1901 Gibbs, Josiah WillardJosiah Willard Gibbs  Estados Unidos "For his contributions to mathematical physics" [97]
151 1902 Lister, JosephJoseph Lister  Inglaterra "In recognition of the value of his physiological and pathological researches in regard to their influence on the modern practice of surgery" [98]
152 1903 Suess, EduardEduard Suess  Austrália "For his eminent geological services, & especially for the original researches & conclusions published in his great work 'Das Antlitz der Erde'" [98]
153 1904 Crookes, WilliamWilliam Crookes  Inglaterra "For his long-continued researches in spectroscopic chemistry, on electrical & mechanical phenomena in highly-rarefied gases, on radio-active phenomena, and other subjects" [98]
154 1905 Mendeleiev, DmitriDmitri Mendeleiev  Rússia "For his contributions to chemical and physical science" [98]
155 1906 Mechnikov, Ilya IlyichIlya Ilyich Mechnikov "On the ground of the importance of his work in zoology and in pathology" [98]
156 1907 Michelson, Albert AbrahamAlbert Abraham Michelson  Estados Unidos "On the ground of his investigations in optics" [98]
157 1908 Wallace, Alfred RusselAlfred Russel Wallace  Reino Unido "On the ground of the great value of his numerous contributions to natural history, and of the part he took in working out the theory of the origin of species by natural selection" [98]
158 1909 Hill, George WilliamGeorge William Hill  Estados Unidos "On the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy" [98]
159 1910 Galton, FrancisFrancis Galton  Inglaterra "On the ground of his researches in heredity" [98]
160 1911 Darwin, GeorgeGeorge Darwin "On the ground of his researches on tidal theory, the figures of the planets, and allied subjects" [98]
161 1912 Klein, FelixFelix Klein  Alemanha "On the ground of his researches in mathematics" [99]
162 1913 Lankester, RayRay Lankester  Reino Unido "On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him" [100]
163 1914 Thomson, Joseph JohnJoseph John Thomson "On the ground of his discoveries in physical science" [98]
164 1915 Pavlov, IvanIvan Pavlov  Rússia "On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system" [98]
165 1916 Dewar, JamesJames Dewar Escócia "For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases" [98]
166 1917 Roux, ÉmileÉmile Roux  França "On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy" [101]
167 1918 Lorentz, HendrikHendrik Lorentz  Países Baixos "On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics" [98]
168 1919 Bayliss, WilliamWilliam Bayliss  Inglaterra "On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics" [98]
169 1920 Brown, HoraceHorace Brown  Reino Unido "On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c" [102]
170 1921 Larmor, JosephJoseph Larmor  Irlanda "For his researches in mathematical physics" [103]
171 1922 Rutherford, ErnestErnest Rutherford  Nova Zelândia "For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure" [98]
172 1923 Lamb, HoraceHorace Lamb  Reino Unido "For his researches in mathematical physics" [104]
173 1924 Sharpey-Schafer, Edward AlbertEdward Albert Sharpey-Schafer "For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences"
174 1925 Einstein, AlbertAlbert Einstein  Alemanha "For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory" [98]
175 1926 Hopkins, FrederickFrederick Hopkins  Reino Unido "For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry" [105]
176 1927 Sherrington, CharlesCharles Sherrington "For his distinguished work on neurology" [106]
177 1928 Parsons, Charles AlgernonCharles Algernon Parsons "For his contributions to engineering science"
178 1929 Planck, MaxMax Planck  Alemanha "For his contributions to theoretical physics and especially as the originator of the quantum theory" [107]
179 1930 Bragg, William HenryWilliam Henry Bragg  Reino Unido "For his distinguished contributions to crystallography and radioactivity" [108]
180 1931 Schuster, ArthurArthur Schuster  Alemanha "For his distinguished researches in optics and terrestrial magnetism" [109]
181 1932 Hale, George ElleryGeorge Ellery Hale  Estados Unidos "For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory" [110]
182 1933 Smith, TheobaldTheobald Smith "For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man" [111]
183 1934 Haldane, John ScottJohn Scott Haldane Escócia "In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering" [112]
184 1935 Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson "For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties" [113]
185 1936 Evans, ArthurArthur Evans  Reino Unido "In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age" [114]
186 1937 Dale, HenryHenry Dale "In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems" [115]
187 1938 Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr  Dinamarca "In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure" [116]
188 1939 Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan  Estados Unidos "For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution" [117]
189 1940 Langevin, PaulPaul Langevin  França "For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics" [118]
190 1941 Lewis, ThomasThomas Lewis  Reino Unido "For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart" [119]
191 1942 Robinson, RobertRobert Robinson "For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry" [120]
192 1943 Barcroft, JosephJoseph Barcroft "For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood" [121]
193 1944 Taylor, Geoffrey IngramGeoffrey Ingram Taylor "For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications" [122]
194 1945 Avery, Oswald TheodoreOswald Theodore Avery  Canadá "For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases" [123]
195 1946 Adrian, Edgar DouglasEdgar Douglas Adrian  Reino Unido "For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions" [124]
196 1947 Hardy, Godfrey HaroldGodfrey Harold Hardy "For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years" [125]
197 1948 Hill, Archibald VivianArchibald Vivian Hill "For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues" [126]
198 1949 Hevesy, George Charles DeGeorge Charles De Hevesy  Hungria "For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes" [127]
199 1950 Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick  Reino Unido "For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron" [128]

1951 — 2000[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Premiado Nacionalidade Razão Referência
200 1951 Keilin, DavidDavid Keilin  Reino Unido "For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes" [129]
201 1952 Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac "In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics" [130]
202 1953 Kluyver, AlbertAlbert Kluyver  Países Baixos "For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology"
203 1954 Whittaker, Edmund TaylorEdmund Taylor Whittaker  Reino Unido "For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics" [131]
204 1955 Fisher, RonaldRonald Fisher "In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology" [132]
205 1956 Blackett, PatrickPatrick Blackett "In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism"
206 1957 Florey, HowardHoward Florey  Austrália "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine" [133]
207 1958 Littlewood, John EdensorJohn Edensor Littlewood  Reino Unido "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and non-linear differential equations" [134]
208 1959 Burnet, Frank MacfarlaneFrank Macfarlane Burnet  Austrália "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology" [135]
209 1960 Jeffreys, HaroldHarold Jeffreys  Reino Unido "In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy" [136]
210 1961 Krebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs  Alemanha "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles" [137] s
211 1962 Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood  Reino Unido "In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy" [138]
212 1963 Fildes, PaulPaul Fildes "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology."
213 1964 Sydney Chapman, Sydney Chapman "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis" [139]
214 1965 Hodgkin, AlanAlan Hodgkin "In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology"
215 1966 Lawrence Bragg, WilliamWilliam Lawrence Bragg  Austrália "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by X-ray diffraction" [98]
216 1967 Katz, BernardBernard Katz  Alemanha "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction"
217 1968 Reichstein, TadeusTadeus Reichstein  Polónia "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the cortico-steroids"
218 1969 Medawar, PeterPeter Medawar  Reino Unido "In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance" [98]
219 1970 Todd, AlexanderAlexander Todd "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types" [98]
220 1971 Pirie, NormanNorman Pirie "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses"
221 1972 Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott "In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics" [98]
222 1973 Huxley, AndrewAndrew Huxley "In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction"
223 1974 Hodge, William V. D.William V. D. Hodge Escócia "In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals" [140]
224 1975 Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick  Reino Unido "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology" [98]
225 1976 Hodgkin, Dorothy CrowfootDorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin "In recognition of her outstanding work on the structures of complex molecules, particularly Penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin" [98]
226 1977 Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids" [98]
227 1978 Woodward, Robert BurnsRobert Burns Woodward  Estados Unidos "In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry" [98]
228 1979 Perutz, MaxMax Perutz  Áustria "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject" [98]
229 1980 Barton, Derek Harold RichardDerek Harold Richard Barton  Reino Unido "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and , in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry" [98]
230 1981 Mitchell, Peter D.Peter D. Mitchell "In recognition of his distinguished contribution to biology in his formulation and development of the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction" [98]
231 1982 Cornforth, JohnJohn Cornforth  Austrália "In recognition of his distinguished research on the stereochemically-controlled synthesis and biosynthesis of biologically important molecules" [141]
232 1983 Porter, RodneyRodney Porter  Reino Unido "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins"
233 1984 Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar  Índia "In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity" [142]
234 1985 Klug, AaronAaron Klug  Lituânia "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of complex biological structures and the methods used for determining them"
235 1986 Peierls, RudolphRudolph Peierls  Alemanha "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a very wide range of theoretical physics, and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials"
236 1987 Hill, RobertRobert Hill  Reino Unido "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the main pathway of electron transport in photosynthesis"
237 1988 Atiyah, MichaelMichael Atiyah Líbano "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a wide range of topics in geometry, topology, analysis and theoretical physics" [143]
238 1989 Milstein, CesarCesar Milstein  Argentina "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response"
239 1990 Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam Paquistão "In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces" [144]
240 1991 Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner África do Sul "In recognition of his many contributions to molecular genetics and developmental biology, and his recent role in the Human Genome mapping project"
241 1992 Porter, GeorgeGeorge Porter  Reino Unido "In recognition of his contributions to fundamental understanding of fast photochemical and photophysical processes and their role in chemistry and biology" [145]
242 1993 Watson, JamesJames Watson  Estados Unidos "In recognition of his tireless pursuit of DNA, from the elucidation of its structure to the social and medical implications of the sequencing of the human genome" [146]
243 1994 Frank, Frederick CharlesFrederick Charles Frank  Reino Unido "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the theory of crystal morphology, in particular to the source of dislocations and their consequences in interfaces and crystal growth; to fundamental understanding of liquid crystals and the concept of disclination; and to the extension of crystallinity concepts to aperiodic crystals. He has also contributed through a variety of remarkable insights into a great number of physical problems"
244 1995 Fenner, FrankFrank Fenner  Austrália "In recognition of his contribution to animal virology with special emphasis on the pox and myxomatosis viruses and their relationship with the host in causing disease"
245 1996 Cottrell, AlanAlan Cottrell  Reino Unido "In recognition of his contribution to the understanding of mechanical properties of materials and related topics through his pioneering studies on crystal plasticity, dislocation impurity interactions, fracture and irradiation effects" [147]
246 1997 Huxley, HughHugh Huxley "In recognition of his pioneering work on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction, providing solutions to one of the great problems in physiology"
247 1998 Lighthill, JamesJames Lighthill  França "In recognition of his profound contributions to many fields within fluid mechanics including important aspects of the interaction of sound and fluid flow and numerous other contributions which have had practical applications in aircraft engine design. He is noted also for his ground-breaking work on both external bio-fluid-dynamics - analysis of mechanisms of swimming and flying - and internal bio-fluid-dynamics, including flow in the cardiovascular system and the airways, and cochlear mechanics and other aspects of hearing" [148]
248 1999 Smith, John MaynardJohn Maynard Smith  Reino Unido "In recognition of his seminal contributions to evolutionary biology, including his experimental work on sexual selection, his important contributions to our understanding of ageing, his introduction of game theoretical methods for the analysis of complex evolutionary scenarios and his research into molecular evolution, both through his classic work on genetic hitchhiking, and with his more recent, ongoing work on bacterial population growth" [149]
249 2000 Battersby, AlanAlan Battersby "In recognition of his pioneering work in elucidating the detailed biosynthetic pathways to all the major families of plant alkaloids. His approach, which stands as a paradigm for future biosynthetic studies on complex molecules, combines isolation work, structure determination, synthesis, isotopic labelling and spectroscopy, especially advanced NMR, as well as genetics and molecular biology. This spectacular research revealed the entire pathway to vitamin B12"

2001 — 2014[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Premiado Nacionalidade Razão Referência
250 2001 Miller, JacquesJacques Miller  França "For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells"
251 2002 Pople, JohnJohn Pople  Reino Unido "For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology" [150]
252 2003 Gurdon, JohnJohn Gurdon "For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology"
253 2004 Kroto, HaroldHarold Kroto "in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science" [151]
254 2005 Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse "for his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division."
255 2006 Hawking, StephenStephen Hawking "For his outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and theoretical cosmology."[28]
256 2007 May, RobertRobert May "for his seminal studies of interactions within and among biological populations that have reshaped our understanding of how species, communities and entire ecosystems respond to natural or human created disturbance." [152]
257 2008 Penrose, RogerRoger Penrose "for his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang."
258 2009 Evans, MartinMartin Evans "for his seminal work on embryonic stem cells in mice, which revolutionised the field of genetics."
259[a] 2010 Cox, DavidDavid Cox "for his seminal contributions to the theory and applications of statistics."
Lindahl, TomasTomas Lindahl  Suécia "for his seminal contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry of DNA repair."
260 2011 McKenzie, DanDan McKenzie  Reino Unido "For his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena including tectonic plates."
261 2012 Walker, John ErnestJohn Ernest Walker "For his ground-breaking work on bioenergetics, discovering the mechanism of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion."
262 2013 Geim, AndreAndre Geim  Países Baixos "Por sua numerosa contribuição científica e, em particular, por iniciar pesquisa sobre cristais atômicos bidimensionais e suas hetero-estruturas artificiais." [153]
263 2014 Jeffreys, AlecAlec Jeffreys  Reino Unido "For his pioneering work on variation and mutation in the human genome." [154]
  • a. ^ Em 2010, foram concedidas duas medalhas em comemoração ao 350.º aniversário da Royal Society.[152]

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  77. BjS: Academic Lineage. Yale University. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  78. Weber summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  79. Darwin and the Copley Medal (PDF). American Philosophical Society. Página visitada em 2009-02-05. [ligação inativa]
  80. Adam Sedgwick Collection. American Philosophical Society. Página visitada em 2009-02-05. [ligação inativa]
  81. Chasles summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  82. Plucker summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  83. Helmholtz summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  84. Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science. Journal of Industrial Science. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  85. Jean Baptiste Boussingault (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  86. Clausius summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  87. Sylvester summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  88. Cayley summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  89. Thompson summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  90. Neumann_Franz summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  91. Salmon summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  92. Newcomb summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  93. Stokes summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  94. Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, c 1863-1883.. Science and Society Picture Library. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  95. Weierstrass summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  96. Rayleigh summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-03.
  97. Gibbs summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  98. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal. Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  99. Klein summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  100. Obituary: Edwin Ray Lankester (PDF). National Marine Biological Laboratory. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  101. Notes and Records of the Royal Society. Royal Society Publishing. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  102. Obituary notice: Horace Tabberer Brown (PDF). Biochemical Journal. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  103. Larmour summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  104. Lamb summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  105. Oxford DNB article: Hopkins, Sir Frederick (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  106. Sir Charles Sherrington - Biography. Nobel Foundation. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  107. Planck summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  108. William Bragg - Biography. Nobel Foundation. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  109. Sir Arthur Schuster. The Astrophysical Journal. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  110. George Ellery Hale: Acknowledgements. Franklin Institute. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  111. Award of the Copley Medal of the Royal Society to Professor Theobald Smith. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  112. Oxford DNB article: Haldane, John Scott (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  113. C.T.R.Wilson - Biography. Nobel Foundation. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  114. Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S: Abstract. Nature. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  115. Sir Henry Dale - Biography. Nobel Foundation. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  116. Bohr_Niels summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  117. Thomas H. Morgan - Biography. Nobel Foundation. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  118. Medal Awards of the Royal Society. Nature. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  119. Thomas Lewis. Cardiology Journal. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  120. Sir Robert Robinson - Biography. nobelprize.org. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  121. Sir Joseph Barcroft of Cambridge. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  122. Taylor_Geoffrey summay. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  123. The Oswald T. Avery Collection: Biographical Information. United States National Library of Medicine. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  124. Oxford DNB article:Adrian, Edgar Douglas (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  125. Hardy summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  126. Oxford DNB article:Hill, Archibald Vivian (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  127. Royal Society: Anniversary Address By Sir Robert Robinson, O.M., F.R.S. Nature. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  128. Oxford DNB article:Chadwick, James (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  129. Oxford DNB article:Keilin, David (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  130. Oxford DNB article:Dirac, Paul(subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  131. Whittaker summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  132. Fisher summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  133. Oxford DNB article:Florey, Howard (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  134. Littlewood summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  135. Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet - Biography. nobelprize.org. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  136. Jeffreys summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  137. Sir Hans Adolf Krebs. nobel-winners.com. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  138. Oxford DNB article:Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  139. Oxford DNB article:Chapman, Sydney (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  140. Hodge summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  141. Emeritus Professor Sir John Cornforth - Alumni & Friends. University of Sydney. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  142. Chandrasekhar biography. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  143. Atiyah biography. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  144. Oxford DNB article:Salam, Abdus (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  145. Oxford DNB article:Porter, George (subscription needed). Oxford University Press (2004). Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  146. Press Release - James Watson to receive Othmer Medal. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  147. MRS Website: Award Presentations. Materials Research Society. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  148. Lighthill summary. University of St Andrews. Página visitada em 2009-02-05.
  149. John Maynard Smith January 6, 1920–April 19, 2004. Genetics. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  150. Obituary: John A. Pople. The Observer. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  151. FSU highlights. Florida State University. Página visitada em 2009-02-15.
  152. a b Copley Medal (em inglês). The Royal Society. Página visitada em 23 de julho de 2011.
  153. Sir Andre Geim wins Royal Society Copley Medal (em inglês). Página visitada em 8 de dezembro de 2013.
  154. "Leicester University Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys wins science's oldest prize", Leicester Mercury, 5 August 2014. Página visitada em 7 de agosto de 2014.

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