Medalha Nacional de Tecnologia e Inovação

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A Medalha Nacional de Tecnologia e Inovação

A Medalha Nacional de Tecnologia e Inovação (em inglês: National Medal of Technology and Innovation, originalmente denominada National Medal of Technology) é uma condecoração concedida pelo Presidente dos Estados Unidos a inventores e inovadores estadunidenses com contribuições significativas ao desenvolvimento de novas e avançadas tecnologias. A condecoração é concedida a uma pessoa específica, a um grupo de pessoas ou a uma organização ou corporação. É a mais significativa condecoração que os Estados Unidos conferem a um cidadão estadunidense por conquistas relacionadas ao progresso tecnológico.


Laureados[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Laureado Tópico
1985 Fred Brooks,
Erich Bloch e
Bob Overton Evans
"For their contributions to the IBM System/360, a computer system and technologies which revolutionized the data processing industry…"
Steve Jobs e
Steve Wozniak
"For their development and introduction of the personal computer…"
Joseph F. Sutter "For his contributions to the development of the commercial airliner jet, the 474…"
1986 Bernard M. Gordon "For his invention and development of D/A and A/D conversion…"
Reynold B. Johnson "For his invention and development of magnetic disk storage…"
1987 Robert Noyce "For his inventions in the field of semiconductor integrated circuits…"
1988 Arnold Orville Beckman "For exceptional creativity in designing analytical instruments" (spectrophotometry)
Edwin Land "For the invention, development and marketing of instant photography."
David Packard "For extraordinary and unselfish leadership in both industry and government, particularly in widely diversified technological fields…"
1989 Herbert Boyer e
Stanley Norman Cohen
"For their fundamental invention of gene splicing techniques … and discovery of recombinant DNA technology"
Helen T. Edwards,
Richard A. Lundy,
J. Ritchie Orr e
Alvin Tollestrup
"For their contributions to the design, construction and initial operation of the Tevatron particle accelerator"
1990 John Atanasoff "For his invention of the electronic digital computer…"
Marvin Camras "For the development and commercialization of magnetic recording…"
Jack Kilby "For his invention and contributions to the commercialization of the integrated circuit and the silicon thermal print-head; for his contributions to the development of the first computer using integrated circuits; and for the invention of the hand-held calculator, and gate array."
Gordon Moore "For his seminal leadership in … large-scale integrated memory and the microprocessor…"
1991 Grace Murray Hopper "For her pioneering accomplishments in the development of computer programming languages…"
1992 Bill Gates "For his early vision of universal computing at home and in the office…"
1993 Ken Olsen "For his contributions to the development and use of computer technology" (Digital Equipment Corporation – DEC)
1994 Irwin M. Jacobs "For his development of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) as a commercial technology adopted as a U.S. digital cellular standard"
1995 Alejandro Zaffaroni "For his contributions to time released medicine and serial entrepreneurship in the field of biotechnology."
1996 Stephanie Kwolek "For her contributions to the discovery, development and liquid crystal processing of high-performance aramid fibers (Kevlar)"
1997 Vinton Cerf e
Robert Kahn
"For creating and sustaining development of Internet Protocols"
Ray Dolby "For his inventions and for fostering their adoption worldwide through the products and programs of his company"
1998 Ken Thompson e
Dennis Ritchie
"For co-inventing the UNIX operating system and the C programming language which together have led to enormous advance to computer hardware, software and networking systems. And assimilated the growth of an entire industry thereby enhancing American leadership in the information age."
1999 Robert William Taylor "For visionary leadership in the development of modern computing technology, including computer networks, the personal computer and the graphical user interface."
2000 Douglas Engelbart For inventing the computer mouse and helping develop hypertext
Dean Kamen "For inventions that have advanced medical care worldwide, and for … awakening America to the excitement of science and technology."
2001 Arun Netravali "pioneering contributions that transformed TV from analog to digital, enabling numerous integrated circuits, systems and services in broadcast TV, CATV, DBS, HDTV, and multimedia over the Internet; and for technical expertise and leadership, which have kept Bell Labs at the forefront in communications technology."
2002 Carl Donald Keith e
John J. Mooney
For inventing the three-way catalytic converter
Nick Holonyak For inventing the LED
2003 Jan Achenbach "For his seminal contributions to engineering research and education and for pioneering ultrasonic methods for the detection of cracks and corrosion in aircraft, leading to improved safety for aircraft structures."
Watts Humphrey "For his vision of a discipline for software engineering, for his work toward meeting that vision, and for the resultant impact on the U.S. Government, industry, and academic communities."
Robert Metcalfe "For leadership in the invention, standardization, and commercialization of Ethernet."
2004 Ralph Baer "For inventing the first video game console."
Roger Easton, Sr. "For his extensive pioneering achievements in spacecraft tracking, navigation and timing technology that led to the development of the NAVSTAR-Global Positioning System (GPS)." [1]
2005 Ronald J. Eby,
Maya Koster,
Dace Viceps Madore e
Velupillai Puvanesarajah
"For their work in the discovery, development and commercialization of Prevnar, the first-ever vaccine to prevent the deadly and disabling consequences of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children."
Dean L. Sicking "For his innovative design and development of roadside and race track safety technologies that safely dissipate the energy of high-speed crashes, helping prevent fatalities and injuries."
Alfred Yi Cho "For his contributions to the invention of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology and the development of the MBE technology into an advanced electronic and photonic devices production tool, with applications to cellular phones, CD players, and high-speed communications."
2006 Leslie A. Geddes "For his contributions to electrode design and tissue restoration, which have led to the widespread use of a wide variety of clinical devices. His discoveries and inventions have saved and enriched thousands of lives and have formed the cornerstone of much of the modern implantable medical device field."
Paul G. Kaminski "For his contributions to national security through the development of advanced, unconventional imaging from space, and for developing and fielding advanced systems with greatly enhanced survivability. He has made a profound difference in the national security posture and the global leadership of the United States."
Herwig Kogelnik "For his pioneering contributions and leadership in the development of the technology of lasers, optoelectronics, integrated optics, and lightwave communication systems that have been instrumental in driving the growth of fiber optic transmission systems for our Nation's communications infrastructure."
Charles M. Vest "For his visionary leadership in advancing America's technological workforce and capacity for innovation through revitalizing the national partnership among academia, government, and industry."
James Edward Maceo West "For co-inventing the electret microphone in 1962. Ninety percent of the two billion microphones produced annually and used in everyday items such as telephones, hearing aids, camcorders, and multimedia computers employ electret technology."
2007 Paul Baran "For the invention and development of the fundamental architecture for packet switched communication networks which provided a paradigm shift from the circuit switched communication networks of the past and later was used to build the ARPANET and the Internet."
Roscoe Brady "For the discovery of the enzymatic defects in hereditary metabolic disorders such as Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, Fabry disease and Tay-Sachs disease, devising widely used genetic counseling procedures and development of highly effective enzyme replacement therapy that provided the foundation for patient treatment; and for stimulating the creation of and fostering the success of many biotechnology companies that now produce the therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases."
David N. Cutler "For having envisioned, designed and implemented world standards for real-time, personal and server-based operating systems for over 30 years, carrying these projects from conception through design, engineering and production for Digital Equipment Corporation’s RSX-11 and VAX/VMS and for Microsoft’s Windows NT-based computer operating systems, and for his fundamental contributions to computer architecture, compilers, operating systems and software engineering."
Armand V. Feigenbaum "For leadership in the development of the economic relationship of quality costs, productivity improvement, and profitability and for his pioneering application of economics, general systems theory and technology, statistical methods and management principles that define the Total Quality Management approach for achieving performance excellence and global competitiveness. "
Adam Heller "For fundamental contributions to electrochemistry and bioelectrochemistry and the subsequent application of those fundamentals in the development of technological products that improved the quality of life of millions across the globe, most notably in the area of human health and well-being."
Carlton Grant Willson "For creation of novel lithographic imaging materials and techniques that have enabled the manufacturing of smaller, faster and more efficient microelectronic components that better the quality of the lives of people worldwide and improve the competitiveness of the U.S. microelectronics industry."
2008 Forrest Bird "For his pioneering inventions in cardiopulmonary medicine, including the medical respirator; devices that helped launch modern-day medical evacuation capabilities; and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) technologies, which have saved the lives of millions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other conditions."
Esther Sans Takeuchi "For her seminal development of the silver vanadium oxide battery that powers the majority of the world's lifesaving implantable cardiac defibrillators, and her innovations in other medical battery technologies that improve the health and quality of life of millions of people."
John Warnock e
Charles Geschke
"For their pioneering contributions that spurred the desktop publishing revolution and for changing the way people create and engage with information and entertainment across multiple mediums including print, Web and video." [2]
2009 Harry Coover "for his invention of cyanoacrylates, a new class of adhesives that have influenced medicine and industry, and are known widely to consumers as "super" glues."
Helen Murray Free "for her seminal contributions to diagnostic chemistry, primarily through dip-and-read urinalysis tests, that first enabled diabetics to monitor their blood glucose levels on their own."
Steven Sasson "for the invention of the digital camera, which has revolutionized the way images are captured, stored and shared, thereby creating new opportunities for commerce, for education and for improved worldwide communication."
Federico Faggin,
Marcian Hoff e
Stanley Mazor
"for the conception, design, development and application of the first microcomputer, a universal building block that enabled a multitude of novel digital electronic systems." [1]
2010 Rakesh Agrawal "for an extraordinary record of innovations in improving the energy efficiency and reducing the cost of gas liquefaction and separation. These innovations have had significant positive impacts on electronic device manufacturing, liquefied gas production, and the supply of industrial gases for diverse industries." [2]
Jayant Baliga "for development and commercialization of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and other power semiconductor devices that are extensively used in transportation, lighting, medicine, defense, and renewable energy generation systems."
Charles Donald Bateman "for developing and championing critical flight-safety sensors now used by aircraft worldwide, including ground proximity warning systems and wind-shear detection systems."
Yvonne Brill "for innovation in rocket propulsion systems for geosynchronous and low earth orbit communication satellites, which greatly improved the effectiveness of space propulsion systems."
Michael Francis Tompsett "for pioneering work in materials and electronic technologies including the design and development of the first charge-coupled device (CCD) imagers."
2011 Frances Arnold "For pioneering research on biofuels and chemicals that could lead to the replacement of pollution-generating materials."
Arthur H. Rosenfeld "For extraordinary leadership in the development of energy-efficient building technologies and related standards and policies."
George Robert Carruthers "For invention of the Far UV Electrographic Camera, which significantly improved our understanding of space and earth science."
Robert Langer "For inventions and discoveries that led to the development of controlled drug release systems, engineered tissues, angiogenesis inhibitors, and new biomaterials."
Gholam A. Peyman "For invention of the LASIK surgical technique, and for developing the field of intraocular drug administration and expanding the field of retinal surgery."
Samuel Emil Blum,
Rangaswamy Srinivasan e
James Wynne
"For the pioneering discovery of excimer laser ablative photodecomposition of human and animal tissue, laying the foundation for PRK and LASIK, laser refractive surgical techniques that have revolutionized vision enhancement."
BBN Technologies "For sustained innovation through the engineering of first-of-a-kind, practical systems in acoustics, signal processing, and information technology."

Referências

Ligações externas[editar | editar código-fonte]