Medalha Real

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George IV, que criou o prêmio em 1826

A Medalha Real, também conhecida como "Medalha da Rainha", é uma medalha de prata entregue anualmente pelo monarca do Reino Unido por recomendação da Real Sociedade de Londres, sendo duas às "mais importantes contribuições para o avanço do conhecimento da Natureza" (uma para cada uma das grandes divisões da ciência) e outra para "contribuições extraordinárias no campo das ciências aplicadas". Estes prémios são conferidos a contribuições realizadas dentro da Comunidade Britânica.

O prémio foi instituído por Jorge IV do Reino Unido e atribuído pela primeira vez em 1826. O formato do prémio foi alterado em 1837 para abranger igualmente a matemática (as outras duas "grandes divisões da ciência" eram consideradas a física e a biologia), mas apenas cada três anos; em 1965, o sistema foi novamente mudado para permitir a atribuição anual das três medalhas.

Vários laureados do Prémio Nobel receberam também Medalhas Reais, como Frederick Sanger, Max Perutz e Francis Crick, e alguns que não são britânicos, também receberam, como Abdus Salam e Chintamani Rao, entre outros.

Agraciados[editar | editar código-fonte]

1826 — 1850[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Nome Campo Motivo
1826 Ivory, JamesJames Ivory Matemática "Por seu trabalho sobre Astronomia, publicado na Philosophical Transactions no ano de 1823, e seus outros documentos valiosos sobre Temas de Matemática".
Dalton, JohnJohn Dalton Física "Pelo desenvolvimento da teoria atômica e seus outros trabalhos importantes e descobertas na ciência física."
1827 Struve, Friedrich Georg WilhelmFriedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve Astronomia "Pelo seu trabalho entitulado Catalogus Novus Stellarum Duplicium."
Davy, HumphryHumphry Davy Física "Por sua Bakerian Lecture, sobre as relações de mudanças elétricas, considerado como o último elo, no fim do tempo, da cadeia esplêndido dos Descobrimentos em Química da Electricidade, que foi continuado por tantos anos".
1828 Encke, Johann FranzJohann Franz Encke Astronomia "Por determinação exata histórico da órbita de um cometa de curto período, como foi confirmado pela observação."
Wollaston, William HydeWilliam Hyde Wollaston Química "Para uma comunicação histórica, direito, em um método de renderização Platina maleável, sendo a conclusão de uma série de pesquisas sobre as propriedades dos corpos metálicos contidos nos minérios de Platina ".
1829 Bell, CharlesCharles Bell Anatomia "Para descobertas históricas relativas ao sistema nervoso."
Mitscherlich, EilhardEilhard Mitscherlich Química "Para Descobrimentos históricos relativos às Leis de cristalização, e as propriedades dos cristais."
1830 Balard, Antoine JérômeAntoine Jérôme Balard Química Descobridor do Bromo
Brewster, DavidDavid Brewster Física Colaborou para a Royal Society sobre a polarização e outras propriedades da luz."
1831 Não houve premiação
1832
1833 Candolle, Augustin Pyramus deAugustin Pyramus de Candolle Botânica "For his Researches and Investigations in Vegetable Physiology, as detailed in his Work, entitled, Physiologie Vegetale."
Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel Astronomia "For his Paper "on the Investigation of the Orbits of Revolving Double Stars," inserted in the Fifth Volume of the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society."
1834 Lyell, CharlesCharles Lyell Geologia "For his Work, entitled, Principles of Geology."
Lubbock, John WilliamJohn William Lubbock Física "For his Papers on the Tides published in the Philosophical Transactions."
1835 Faraday, MichaelMichael Faraday Química "For his investigations and discoveries contained in the series of experimental researches in electricity published in the Philosophical Transactions, and more particularly for the seventh series, relating to the definite nature of electrochemical action."
Hamilton, William RowanWilliam Rowan Hamilton Física "For the papers published by him in the 16th and 17th volumes of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, entitled Supplement to an Essay on the Theory of Systems of Rays, and more particularly for those investigations at the conclusion of the third and last supplement, which relate to the discovery of conic refraction."
1836 Newport, GeorgeGeorge Newport Anatomia "For his series of investigations on the anatomy and physiology of insects, contained in his two papers published in the Philosophical Transactions within the last three years."
Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel Astronomia "For his paper on nebulae and clusters of stars, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833."
1837 Whewell, WilliamWilliam Whewell Física "For his researches connected with the theory of the tides, communicated to the Royal Society and published in its Transactions within the last three years."
1838 Talbot, William FoxWilliam Fox Talbot Matemática "For his papers entitled Researches in the Integral Calculus, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836 and 1837."
Graham, ThomasThomas Graham Química "For his paper entitled "Inquiries respecting the Constiitution of salts, of oxalates, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides," published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836."
1839 Ivory, JamesJames Ivory Matemática "For his paper on the theory of the astronomical refractions published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1838. Part II."
Barry, MartinMartin Barry Embriologia "For his papers on embryology, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1838 and 1839."
1840 Wheatstone, CharlesCharles Wheatstone Fisiologia "For his paper entitled Contributions to the physiology of vision, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1838."
Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel Astronomia "For his paper entitled On the chemical action of the rays of the solar spectrum on preparations of silver, and other substances, both metallic and non-metallic, and on some photogenic processes, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1840."
1841 Hodgkinson, EatonEaton Hodgkinson Engenharia "For his paper entitled Experimental researches on the strength of pillars of cast iron, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1840."
Kane, RobertRobert Kane Química "For his memoir entitled the Chemical History of archil and litmus, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1840."
1842 Daniell, John FredericJohn Frederic Daniell Química "For his letters on the electrolysis of secondary compounds and on voltaic combinations published in the Transactions for 1840 and 1842."
Bowman, WilliamWilliam Bowman Anatomia "For his paper on the structure and use of the Malpighian bodies of the kidney, with observations on the circulation through that gland, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the present year."
1843 Wheatstone, CharlesCharles Wheatstone Física "For his paper entitled, an account of several new instruments and processes for determining the constants of a voltaic circuit, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year."
Forbes, James DavidJames David Forbes Física "For his researches on the law of extinction of the solar rays in passing through the atmosphere, contained in a paper published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1842."
1844 Boole, GeorgeGeorge Boole Matemática "For his paper on a general method in analysis, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the present year."
Andrews, ThomasThomas Andrews Química "For his paper on the thermal changes accompanying basic substitutions, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the present year."
1845 Airy, George BiddellGeorge Biddell Airy Astronomia "For his paper on the laws of the tides on the cost of Ireland, as inferred from an extensive series of observations made in connection with the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year."
Beck, Thomas SnowThomas Snow Beck Medicina "For his paper entitled On the nerves of the uterus, which has been ordered for publication in the Philosophical Transactions."
1846 Faraday, MichaelMichael Faraday Física "For his experimental researches in electricity, twentieth and twenty first series, on new magnetic actions, and on the magnetic conditions of all matter, inserted in the Philosophical Transactions part I. for 1845."
Owen, RichardRichard Owen Biologia "For his paper entitled A description of certain Belemnites preserved with a great proportion of their soft parts in the Oxford clay at Christian-Malford, Wilts, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1844."
1847 Fownes, GeorgeGeorge Fownes Química "For his papers published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1845, on the artificial formation of a vegeto-alkali, and on benzoline, published in the same volume of the Transactions"
Grove, William RobertWilliam Robert Grove Física "For his papers published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1845 and 1847, on the gas voltaic battery, and on certain phenomena of voltaic ignition"
1848 Hargreave, Charles JamesCharles James Hargreave Matemática "For his paper on the solution of linear differential equations, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1848."
Galloway, ThomasThomas Galloway Matemática "For his paper on the proper motion of the Solar System, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1847"
1849 Sabine, EdwardEdward Sabine Astronomia "For his contributions to terrestrial magnetism, published in the Philosophical Transactions parts VII and VIII, and his memoir on the diurnal variation of the magnetic declination at Saint Helena, part I."
Mantell, GideonGideon Mantell Geologia "For his paper on the Iguanodon, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1848, being a continuation of a series of papers by him on the same fossil reptile, by which he has rendered eminent services to geology."
1850 Brodie, BenjaminBenjamin Brodie Química "For his investigations on the chemical nature of wax, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1848 and 1849."
Graham, ThomasThomas Graham Química "For his paper on the motion of gases, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1849."

1851 — 1900[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Nome Campo Motivo
1851 Parsons, WilliamWilliam Parsons Astronomia "For his observations on the nebulae published in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1850."
Newport, GeorgeGeorge Newport Entomologia "For his paper on the impregnation of the ovum in the amphibia (first series), published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1851."
1852 Joule, James PrescottJames Prescott Joule Física "For his paper on the mechanical equivalent of heat, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850."
Huxley, Thomas HenryThomas Henry Huxley Biologia "For his papers on the anatomy and the affinities of the family of the Medusae, printed in the Philosophical Transactions."
1853 Darwin, CharlesCharles Darwin História natural "For his work entitled Geological Observations on Coral Reefs, Volcanic Islands, and on South America, and his work, Fossil Circhipeda of Great Britain, Section Lepadidae, Monograph of the Circhipeda."
Tyndall, JohnJohn Tyndall Física "For his paper on diamagnetism and magne-crystallic action, published in the Philosophical Magazine in 1851. (the award of this medal was declined by Dr Tyndall)"
1854 Hofmann, August Wilhelm vonAugust Wilhelm von Hofmann Química "For his researches in organic chemistry published in the Transactions of the Royal and Chemical Societies."
Hooker, Joseph DaltonJoseph Dalton Hooker Botânica "For his researches in various branches of science, especially in botany, as naturalist of the Antarctic expedition of Sir James Ross, and in an expedition to the eastern part of the Himalayan range; of which researches part has been published in works entitled The Antarctic Flora, and the Flora of New Zealand, and in various other communications, and part is now in course of publication."
1855 Westwood, John ObadiahJohn Obadiah Westwood Entomologia "For his various monographs and papers on entomology."
Hind, John RussellJohn Russell Hind Astronomia "For the discovery of ten planetoids, the computation of their orbits, and various other astronomical discoveries."
1856 Richardson, JohnJohn Richardson História natural "For his contributions to natural history and physical geography."
Thomson, WilliamWilliam Thomson Física "For his various chemical researches relating to electricity, to the motive power of heat, and to other subjects."
1857 Frankland, EdwardEdward Frankland Química "For the isolation of the organic radicals of the alcohols, and for his researches on the metallic derivatives of alcohol."
Lindley, JohnJohn Lindley Botânica "For his numerous researches and works on all branches of scientific botany, and especially for his vegetable kingdom, and his genera & species of Orchideae."
1858 Hancock, AlbanyAlbany Hancock Biologia "For his various researches on the anatomy of the mollusca."
Lassell, WilliamWilliam Lassell Astronomia "For his various astronomical discoveries and researches."
1859 Cayley, ArthurArthur Cayley Matemática "For his mathematical papers published in the Philosophical Transactions, and in various English and foreign journals."
Bentham, GeorgeGeorge Bentham Botânica "For his important contributions to the advancement of systematic and descriptive botany."
1860 Waller, Augustus VolneyAugustus Volney Waller Neurofisiologia "For his investigations into the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, and for the introduction of a valuable method of conducting such investigations."
Fairbairn, WilliamWilliam Fairbairn Engenharia estrutural "For his various experimental inquiries on the properties of the materials employed in mechanical construction, contained in the Philosophical transactions, and in the publications of other scientific societies."
1861 Sylvester, James JosephJames Joseph Sylvester Matemática "For his various memoirs and researches in mathematical science."
Carpenter, William BenjaminWilliam Benjamin Carpenter Fisiologia "For his researches on the Foraminifera, contained in four memoirs in the Philosophical Transactions, his investigations into the structure of shell, his observations on the embryonic development of Purpura, and his various other writings in physiology and comparative anatomy"
1862 Williamson, Alexander WilliamAlexander William Williamson Química "For his researches on the compound ethers, and his subsequent communications in organic chemistry."
Robinson, John Thomas RomneyJohn Thomas Romney Robinson Astronomia "For the Armagh catalogue of 5345 stars, deduced from observations made at the Armagh Observatory, from the years 1820 up to 1854; for his papers on the construction of astronomical instruments in the memoirs of the Astronomical Society, and his paper on electromagnets in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy."
1863 Gassiot, John PeterJohn Peter Gassiot Física "For his researches on the voltaic battery and current, and on the discharge of electricity through attenuated media."
Berkeley, MilesMiles Berkeley Botânica "For his researches in cryptogamic botany, especially mycology."
1864 Clarke, Jacob LockhartJacob Lockhart Clarke Anatomia "For his researches on the intimate structure of the spinal cord and brain, and on the development of the spinal cord, published in five memoirs in the Philosophical Transactions and in other writings."
Rue, Warren De LaWarren De La Rue Astronomia "For his observations on the total eclipse of the Sun of 1860, and for his improvements in astronomical photography."
1865 Smith, ArchibaldArchibald Smith Matemática "For his papers in the Philosophical Transactions and elsewhere, on the magnetism of ships."
Prestwich, JosephJoseph Prestwich Geologia "For his numerous & valuable contributions to geological science and more especially for his papers published in the Philosophical Transactions on the general question of the excavation of river valleys, and on the superficial deposits in France and England in which the works of man are associated with the remains of extinct animals."
1866 Huggins, WilliamWilliam Huggins Astronomia "For his researches on the spectra of some of the chemical elements and on the spectra of certain of the heavenly bodies; and especially for his researches on the spectra of the nebulae, published in the Philosophical Transactions."
Parker, William KitchenWilliam Kitchen Parker Anatomia "For his researches in comparative osteology, and more especially on the anatomy of the skull, as contained in papers published in the Transactions of the Zoological Society and the Philosophical Transactions."
1867 Lawes, John BennetJohn Bennet Lawes e
Joseph Henry Gilbert
Química "For their researches in agricultural chemistry."
Logan, William EdmondWilliam Edmond Logan Geologia "For his geological researches in Canada, and the construction of a geological map of that colony."
1868 Wallace, Alfred RusselAlfred Russel Wallace Zoologia "For his labours in practical and theoretical zoology."
Salmon, GeorgeGeorge Salmon Matemática "For his researches in analytical geometry and the theory of surfaces, published in the Philosophical Transactions, the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, and the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics."
1869 Matthiessen, AugustusAugustus Matthiessen Química "For his researches on the electrical and other physical properties of metals and their alloys."
Maclear, ThomasThomas Maclear Astronomia "For his measurement of an arc of the meridian at the Cape of Good Hope."
1870 Davidson, ThomasThomas Davidson Paleontologia "For his works on the recent and fossil Brachiopoda, more especially his series of monographs in the publications of the Palaeontographical Society."
Miller, William HallowesWilliam Hallowes Miller Mineralogia "For his researches and writings on mineralogy and crystallography, and his scientific labours in the restoration of the National Standard of Weight."
1871 Busk, GeorgeGeorge Busk Zoologia "For his researches in zoology, physiology, and comparative anatomy."
Stenhouse, JohnJohn Stenhouse Química "For his researches on the lichens & their proximate constituents and derivatives, including Erythrite; and for his researches on the action of charcoal in purifying air."
1872 Carter, Henry JohnHenry John Carter Zoologia "For his long continued and valuable researches in zoology, and more especially for his inquiries into the natural history of the Spongiadae."
Anderson, ThomasThomas Anderson Química "For his investigations on the organic bases of Dippells animal oil; on codeine; on the crystallized constituents of opium; on piperin and on papaverin; and for his researches in physiological and animal chemistry."
1873 Allman, George JamesGeorge James Allman Zoologia "For his researches in zoology, and especially for his memoirs on the structure, development, and physiology of the gymnoblastic hydroids."
Roscoe, Henry EnfieldHenry Enfield Roscoe Química "For his various chemical investigations, especially fot those on the chemical action of light, and upon the element Vanadium and its combinations."
1874 Sorby, Henry CliftonHenry Clifton Sorby Geologia "For his researches on Slaty cleavage and on the minute structure of minerals and rocks; for the construction of the microspectroscope, and for his researches on colouring matters."
Williamson, William CrawfordWilliam Crawford Williamson Paleontologia "For his contributions to zoology & palaeontology, & especially for his investigations into the structure of the fossil plants of the coal measures."
1875 Oldham, ThomasThomas Oldham Geologia "For his long & important services in the science of geology, first as Professor of Geology, Trin. Col. Dub. And Director of the Geol. Survey of Ireland & chiefly for the great work which he has long conducted as superintendent of the Geol. Survey of India, also for the series of volumes of geological reports and memoirs, including the Palaeontographica Indica published under his direction."
Crookes, WilliamWilliam Crookes Química "For his various chemical and physical researches, more especially for his discovery of thallium, his investigation of its compounds and determination of its atomic weight; and for his discovery of the repulsion referable to radiation."
1876 Thomson, Charles WyvilleCharles Wyville Thomson Zoologia "For his successful direction of the scientific investigations carried on by HMS Challenger."
Froude, WilliamWilliam Froude Hidrodinâmica "For his researches both theoretical and experimental on the behaviour of ships, their oscillations, their resistance, & propulsion."
1877 Abel, Frederick AugustusFrederick Augustus Abel Química "For his physico-chemical researches on gun cotton & explosive agents."
Heer, OswaldOswald Heer História natural "For his numerous researches & writings on the tertiary plants of Europe, of the North Atlantic, North Asia, and North America, and for his able generalizations respecting their affinities, and their geological & climatic relations."
1878 Günther, Albrecht Carl Ludwig GotthilfAlbrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther Zoologia "For his numerous & valuable contributions to the zoology & anatomy of fishes & reptiles."
Broun, John AllanJohn Allan Broun Meteorologia "For his investigations during thirty five years in magnetism and meteorology & for his improvements in methods of observation."
1879 Ramsay, AndrewAndrew Ramsay Geologia "For his long continued & successful labours in geology and physical geography."
Perkin, WilliamWilliam Perkin Química "For his synthetical & other researches in organic chemistry."
1880 Noble, AndrewAndrew Noble Física "For his researches into the action of explosives; his invention of the chronoscope; and other mathematical & physical inquiries."
Lister, JosephJoseph Lister Cirurgia "For his contributions on various physiological & biological subjects published in the Philosophical Transactions & Proceedings of the Royal Society & elsewhere; and for his labours practical and theoretical, on questions relating to the antiseptic system of treatment in surgery."
1881 Jellett, John HewittJohn Hewitt Jellett Matemática "For his various mathematical & physical papers, more especially for his researches in chemical optics, & his invention of the new and delicate analyser by which they were carried out."
Balfour, Francis MaitlandFrancis Maitland Balfour Biologia "For his numerous and important contributions to animal morphology; and more especially for his investigations respecting the origin of the urogenital organs and the cerebrospinal nerves of the Vertebrata; and for his work on the development of the Elasmobranch fishes."
1882 Strutt, John WilliamJohn William Strutt Física "For his various papers in mathematical and experimental physics."
Flower, William HenryWilliam Henry Flower Biologia "For his valuable contributions to the morphology and classification of the Mammalia and to anthropology."
1883 Hirst, Thomas ArcherThomas Archer Hirst Matemática "For his researches in pure mathematics."
Burdon-Sanderson, John ScottJohn Scott Burdon-Sanderson Fisiologia "For the eminent services which he has rendered to physiology and pathology, especially for his investigation of the relations of micro-organisms to disease, and his researches on the electric phenomena of plants."
1884 Darwin, GeorgeGeorge Darwin Matemática "For his mathematical investigations on the rigidity of the Earth, and on tides."
Oliver, DanielDaniel Oliver Botânica "For his investigations in the classification of plants, and for the great services which he has rendered to taxonomic botany."
1885 Hughes, David EdwardDavid Edward Hughes Engenharia elétrica "For his electric and magnetic researches, and his invention of the microphone & the induction balance."
Lankester, RayRay Lankester Zoologia "For his discoveries concerning the embryology and morphology of the mollusca and his services to embryology & animal morphology in general."
1886 Tait, Peter GuthriePeter Guthrie Tait Física "For his various mathematical and physical researches."
Galton, FrancisFrancis Galton Biologia "For his statistical inquiries into biological phenomena."
1887 Clarke, Alexander RossAlexander Ross Clarke Geodésia "For his comparison of standards of length and determination of the figure of the Earth."
Moseley, Henry NottidgeHenry Nottidge Moseley História natural "For his numerous researches in animal morphology, and especially his investigations."
1888 Reynolds, OsborneOsborne Reynolds Física "For his investigations in mathematical & experimental physics, and on the application of scientific theory to engineering."
Mueller, Ferdinand vonFerdinand von Mueller Geografia "For his long services in Australian exploration and for his investigations of the flora of the Australian continent."
1889 Thorpe, Thomas EdwardThomas Edward Thorpe Química "For his researches on fluorine compounds, and his determination of the atomic weights of titanium and gold."
Gaskell, Walter HolbrookWalter Holbrook Gaskell Fisiologia "For his researches in cardiac physiology and his important discoveries in the anatomy and physiology of the sympathetic nervous system."
1890 Hopkinson, JohnJohn Hopkinson Física "For his researches in magnetism and electricity."
Ferrier, DavidDavid Ferrier Neurologia "For his researches on the localisation of cerebral functions."
1891 Rucker, Arthur WilliamArthur William Rucker Física "For his researches on liquid films, and his contributions to our knowledge of terrestrial magnetism."
Lapworth, CharlesCharles Lapworth Geologia "For his researches among the older rocks of Britain."
1892 Pritchard, CharlesCharles Pritchard Astronomia "For his work on photometry and stellar parallax."
Langley, John NewportJohn Newport Langley Fisiologia "For his work on secreting glands, and on the nervous system."
1893 Ward, Harry MarshallHarry Marshall Ward Botânica "For his researches into the life-history of fungi and schizomycetes."
Schuster, ArthurArthur Schuster Botânica "For his spectroscopic inquiries, and his researches on disruptive discharge through gases and on terrestrial magnetism."
1894 Thomson, Joseph JohnJoseph John Thomson Física "For his contributions to mathematical and experimental physics especially to electrical theory."
Horsley, VictorVictor Horsley Fisiologia "For his investigations relating to the physiology of the nervous system, and of the thyroid gland, and to their applications to the treatment of disease."
1895 Murray, JohnJohn Murray Oceanografia "For his services to biological science and oceanography in connection with the "Challenger" reports, and for his original contributions to the same."
Ewing, James AlfredJames Alfred Ewing Física "For his investigations on magnetic induction in iron and other metals.
1896 Geikie, ArchibaldArchibald Geikie Geologia "For his many original contributions to geology especially those upon the Old Red Sandstone of Western Europe."
Boys, Charles VernonCharles Vernon Boys Física "For his invention of Quartz Fibres and and [sic] investigation of their properties, his improvement of the radio-micrometer and investigations with it, for developments in the art of instantaneous photography, and for his determination of the value of the constant of attraction."
1897 Strachey, RichardRichard Strachey Geologia "For his researches in geographical, meteorological, and botanical science."
Forsyth, Andrew RussellAndrew Russell Forsyth Matemática "For his contributions to the progress of pure mathematics, and especially for his work in differential equations and the theory of functions."
1898 Kerr, JohnJohn Kerr Física "For his researches on the optical effect of electrical stress and on the reflection of light at the surface of a magnetised body."
Gardiner, WalterWalter Gardiner Botânica "For his researches on the protoplasmic connection of the cells of vegetable tissues and on the minute histology of plants."
1899 McIntosh, William CarmichaelWilliam Carmichael McIntosh Biologia marinha "For his important monographs on British marine zoology and on the fishing industries."
FitzGerald, GeorgeGeorge FitzGerald Física "For his contributions to physical science, especially in the domains of optics and electricity."
1900 Newton, AlfredAlfred Newton Ornitologia "For his eminent contributions to the science of ornithology and the geographical distribution of animals."
MacMahon, Percy AlexanderPercy Alexander MacMahon Matemática "For the number and range of his contributions to mathematical science"

1901 — 1950[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Nome Campo Motivo
1901 Ayrton, William EdwardWilliam Edward Ayrton Engenharia elétrica "For his contributions to electrical science."
Blanford, William ThomasWilliam Thomas Blanford Geologia "For his work in connection with the geographical distribution of animals"
1902 Sharpey-Schafer, Edward AlbertEdward Albert Sharpey-Schafer Neurologia "For his researches into the functions and minute structure of the Central Nervous System, especially with regard to the motor and sensory functions of the cortex of the brain."
Lamb, HoraceHorace Lamb Matemática aplicada "For his investigations in mathematical physics."
1903 Gill, DavidDavid Gill Astronomia "For his researches in solar and stellar parallax, and his energetic direction of the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope."
Brown, HoraceHorace Brown Química "For his work on the chemistry of the carbohydrates and on the assimilation of carbonic acid by green plants."
1904 Bruce, DavidDavid Bruce Microbiologia "For his valuable researches in the pathology of Malta fever, nagana, and sleeping sickness, and especially for his discoveries as regards the exact causes of these diseases."
Burnside, WilliamWilliam Burnside Matemática "For his researches in mathematics, particularly in the theory of groups."
1905 Sherrington, Charles ScottCharles Scott Sherrington Neurofisiologia "For his researches on the Central Nervous System especially in relation to reflex action."
Poynting, John HenryJohn Henry Poynting Física "For his researches in physical science, especially in connection with the constant of gravitation and the theories of electrodynamics and radiation."
1906 Greenhill, Alfred GeorgeAlfred George Greenhill Matemática "For his contributions to mathematics, especially the elliptic functions and their applications."
Scott, Dukinfield HenryDukinfield Henry Scott Botânica "For his investigations and discoveries in connection with the structure and relationship of fossil plants."
1907 Hobson, Ernest WilliamErnest William Hobson Matemática "On the ground of his investigations in mathematics."
Traquair, Ramsay HeatleyRamsay Heatley Traquair História natural "On the ground of his discoveries relating to fossil fishes."
1908 Head, HenryHenry Head Neurologia "On the ground of his researches on the relations between the visceral & somatic nerves and on the functions of the different nerves."
Milne, JohnJohn Milne Geologia "On the ground of his work in seismology."
1909 Love, AugustusAugustus Love Matemática "On the ground of his researches in the theory of elasticity and cognate subjects."
Ross, RonaldRonald Ross Medicina "On the ground of his researches in connection with malaria."
1910 Bower, Frederick OrpenFrederick Orpen Bower Botânica "On the ground of his treatise on the origin of a land flora."
Joly, JohnJohn Joly Geologia "On the ground of researches in physics and geology."
1911 Chrystal, GeorgeGeorge Chrystal Matemática "On the ground of his work in mathematics and physics."
Bayliss, WilliamWilliam Bayliss Fisiologia "On the ground of his researches in physiology."
1912 Smith, Grafton ElliotGrafton Elliot Smith Anatomia no rationale given
Hicks, William MitchinsonWilliam Mitchinson Hicks Física "On the ground of his researches in mathematical physics."
1913 Starling, ErnestErnest Starling Fisiologia "On the ground of his contributions to the advancement of physiology."
Dixon, Harold BailyHarold Baily Dixon Química "On the ground of his eminence in physical chemistry, especially in connexion with explosions in gases."
1914 Brown, Ernest WilliamErnest William Brown Astronomia "For investigations in astronomy, chiefly in the lunar theory."
Sollas, William JohnsonWilliam Johnson Sollas Geologia "For researches in palaeontology."
1915 Larmor, JosephJoseph Larmor Matemática "On the ground of his numerous and important contributions to mathematical and physical science."
Rivers, William Halse RiversWilliam Halse Rivers Rivers Etnologia "On the ground of his important contributions to ethnography and ethnology."
1916 Macdonald, Hector MunroHector Munro Macdonald Matemática "For his contributions to mathematical physics."
Haldane, John ScottJohn Scott Haldane Fisiologia "For his distinguished services to chemical physiology, more especially in reference to the chemical changes in respiration."
1917 Woodward, Arthur SmithArthur Smith Woodward Paleontologia "On the ground of his researches in vertebrate palaeontology."
Aitken, JohnJohn Aitken Meteorologia "On the ground of his work on cloudy condensations."
1918 Fowler, AlfredAlfred Fowler Astronomia "For his distinguished researches in physical astronomy and spectroscopy."
Hopkins, Frederick GowlandFrederick Gowland Hopkins Bioquímica "On the ground of his researches in chemical physiology."
1919 Jeans, James HopwoodJames Hopwood Jeans Matemática "On the ground of his researches in applied mathematics."
Farmer, John BretlandJohn Bretland Farmer Botânica "On the ground of his notable work on plant and animal cytology."
1920 Hardy, Godfrey HaroldGodfrey Harold Hardy Matemática "On the ground of his researches in pure mathematics."
Bateson, WilliamWilliam Bateson Genética "On the ground of his contributions to biological science, and especially his studies in genetics."
1921 Dyson, FrankFrank Dyson Astronomia "For his researches on the distribution and movement of the stars."
Blackman, Frederick FrostFrederick Frost Blackman Botânica "For his researches on the gaseous exchange in plants & on the operation of limiting factors."
1922 Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson Meteorologia "For his researches on condensation nuclei and atmospheric electricity."
Barcroft, JosephJoseph Barcroft Fisiologia "For his researches in physiology and especially for his work in connection with respiration."
1923 Martin, Charles JamesCharles James Martin Fisiologia "For his researches on animal metabolism"
Shaw, NapierNapier Shaw Meteorologia "For his researches in meteorological science"
1924 Clerk, DugaldDugald Clerk Engenharia "For his application of scientific principles to engineering problems."
Dale, Henry HallettHenry Hallett Dale Farmacologia "For his researches in pharmacology and physiology."
1925 Seward, Albert CharlesAlbert Charles Seward Botânica "For his researches on the palaeobotany of Gondwanaland."
Perkin, Jr., William HenryWilliam Henry Perkin, Jr. Química orgânica "For his work on the constitution of the alkaloids carried out during the past few years."
1926 Hill, Archibald VivianArchibald Vivian Hill Fisiologia "For his distinguished work on the physical and chemical aspects of muscular contraction."
Hardy, William BateWilliam Bate Hardy Bioquímica "For his pioneer work on colloidal chemistry and the theory of lubrication."
1927 McLennan, John CunninghamJohn Cunningham McLennan Física "For his researches in spectroscopy and atomic physics."
Lewis, ThomasThomas Lewis Cardiologia "For his researches on the vascular system, following upon his earlier work on the mammalian heart-beat."
1928 Eddington, Arthur StanleyArthur Stanley Eddington Astrofísica "For his contributions to astrophysics."
Broom, RobertRobert Broom Paleontologia "For his discoveries which have shed new light on the problem of the origin of mammals."
1929 Littlewood, John EdensorJohn Edensor Littlewood Matemática "For his work on mathematical analysis and the theory of prime numbers."
Muir, RobertRobert Muir Patologia "For his contributions to the science of immunology."
1930 Marr, John EdwardJohn Edward Marr Geologia "For his pioneer work in the accurate zoning of the palaeozoic rocks."
Richardson, Owen WillansOwen Willans Richardson Física "For his work on thermionics and spectroscopy."
1931 Glazebrook, RichardRichard Glazebrook Física "For his distinguished work in experimental physics."
Lang, William HenryWilliam Henry Lang Botânica "For his work on the anatomy and morphology of the fern-like fossils of the Old Red Sandstone."
1932 Mellanby, EdwardEdward Mellanby Farmacologia "For his important researches on dietary factors, particularly in connexion with rickets."
Robinson, RobertRobert Robinson Química "For his work in many branches of organic chemistry, especially on the structure of plant products and their phytochemical synthesis."
1933 Taylor, Geoffrey IngramGeoffrey Ingram Taylor Física "For his mathematical work in physics, geophysics and aerodynamics."
Laidlaw, PatrickPatrick Laidlaw Virologia "For his work on diseases due to viruses, including that on the cause and prevention of distemper in dogs."
1934 Adrian, Edgar DouglasEdgar Douglas Adrian Eletrofisiologia "For his work on the physiology of nerve and its application to the problems of sensation."
Chapman, SydneySydney Chapman Geofísica "For his researches in the kinetic theory of gases, in terrestrial magnetism and in the phenomena of the upper atmosphere."
1935 Harker, AlfredAlfred Harker Petrologia "In recognition of his distinguished work and influence as a petrologist."
Darwin, Charles GaltonCharles Galton Darwin Física "For his researches in mathematical physics, especially in the quantum mechanics of the electron and in optics."
1936 Goodrich, Edwin StephenEdwin Stephen Goodrich Zoologia "For his work on the morphology of the excretory organs of the invertebrate and for his work on the comparative anatomy and embryology of the vertebrata."
Fowler, Ralph HowardRalph Howard Fowler Física "For his work on statistical mechanics and allied departments of modern mathematical physics."
1937 Buller, Arthur Henry ReginaldArthur Henry Reginald Buller Biologia "In recognition of his researches on the general biology and sexuality of the fungi."
Sidgwick, Nevil VincentNevil Vincent Sidgwick Química "In recognition of his distinguished work on valency and on molecular structure."
1938 Aston, Francis WilliamFrancis William Aston Física "For his discovery of the isotopes of non-radioactive elements."
Fisher, RonaldRonald Fisher Estatística "For his important contributions to the theory and practice of statistical methods."
1939 Keilin, DavidDavid Keilin Entomologia "For his contributions to biochemistry and entomology; in particular for his demonstration of the part played by cytochrome in the oxidation-reduction mechanisms of the living cell; and for his studies of the higher diptera."
Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac Física "For the leading part he had taken in the development of the new quantum mechanics."
1940 Marshall, Francis Hugh AdamFrancis Hugh Adam Marshall Fisiologia "For his contributions to the physiology of animal reproduction."
Blackett, Patrick Maynard StuartPatrick Maynard Stuart Blackett Física "For his studies of cosmic rays and the showers of particles which they produce, for his share in the discovery of the positive electron, for his work on mesons and many other experimental achievements."
1941 Kennaway, ErnestErnest Kennaway Patologia "For his discovery of the nature of the carcinogenic substances in coal tar and for his investigations on production of cancer by synthetic substances."
Milne, Edward ArthurEdward Arthur Milne Astrofísica "For his researches on the atmospheres of the earth and the sun, on the internal constitution of the stars, and on the theory of relativity."
1942 Topley, William Whiteman CarltonWilliam Whiteman Carlton Topley Bacteriologia "For his outstanding work on experimental epidemiology and immunology."
Haworth, Walter NormanWalter Norman Haworth Química "For his fundamental contributions to organic chemistry, particularly to the constitution of the sugars and the structure of complex polysaccharides."
1943 Bailey, Edward BattersbyEdward Battersby Bailey Geologia "For his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of mountain structure and his studies on the tectonics of vulcanism."
Jones, Harold SpencerHarold Spencer Jones Astronomia "For his determination of the solar parallax and of other fundamental astronomical constants."
1944 Harington, Charles RobertCharles Robert Harington Química "For his work in the analysis and synthesis of thyroxine, and in immunological chemistry."
Brunt, DavidDavid Brunt Meteorologia "For his fundamental contributions to meteorology."
1945 Salisbury, Edward JamesEdward James Salisbury Botânica "For his notable contributions to plant ecology and to the study of the British flora generally."
Bernal, John DesmondJohn Desmond Bernal Cristalografia "For his work on the structure of proteins and other substances by X-ray methods and for the solution of many other problems requiring a physical approach."
1946 Darlington, Cyril DeanCyril Dean Darlington Biologia "For his distinguished researches in cytology and genetics."
Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg Física "For his distinguished researches in the sciences of X-ray structure analysis and X-ray spectroscopy."
1947 Burnet, FrankFrank Burnet Virologia "For his distinguished work on bacteriophages, viruses and immunity; and for his contributions to the study of infectious disease as an ecological phenomenon."
Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood Química "For his distinguished work on the mechanism of chemical reactions from the simplest gas phase processes to the complexities of cell division."
1948 Gray, JamesJames Gray Zoologia "For his distinguished researches in cytology, ciliary movement, and particularly his anatomical and experimental studies of animal posture and locomotion."
Jeffreys, HaroldHarold Jeffreys Geofísica "For his distinguished work in geophysics and his important contributions to the astronomy of the solar system.
1949 Peters, Rudolph AlbertRudolph Albert Peters Bioquímica "For his distinguished biochemical researches, in particular his investigations of (i) the biochemical role of vitamin B1 in tissue metabolism; and (ii) the mechanism of the toxic action of lewisite and other arsenical compounds."
Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson Física "For his distinguished contributions to many branches of atomic physics, and especially for his work in establishing the wave properties of the electron."
1950 Pantin, CarlCarl Pantin Zoologia "For his contributions to the comparative physiology of the Invertebrata, particularly his work on nerve conduction in Crustacea and Actinozoa."
Appleton, EdwardEdward Appleton Física "For his work on the ele [sic] transmission of electromagnetic waves round the earth and for his investigations of the ionic state of the upper atmosphere."

1951 — 2000[editar | editar código-fonte]

Abdus Salam (esquerda).
Ano Nome Campo Motivo
1951 Florey, HowardHoward Florey Farmacologia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to pathology by his studies of the functions of mucin and by his work on penicillin and other antibiotics."
Heilbron, IanIan Heilbron Química "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to organic chemistry, notably in the field of vitamin A and polyene synthesis."
1952 Bartlett, FredericFrederic Bartlett Psicologia experimental "In recognition of his creation of an experimental school of psychology which has established under his leadership an outstanding position recognized internationally as without superior."
Ingold, Christopher KelkChristopher Kelk Ingold Química "In recognition of his extensive theoretical and practical studies of the mechanism of organic chemical reactions and the factors influencing them; and for his analysis of the structure of benzene."
1953 Fildes, PaulPaul Fildes Microbiologia "In recognition of his classical researches on growth factors for bacteria and for laying the foundation of work leading to a rational approach to chemotherapy."
Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott Física "In recognition of his eminent work in the field of quantum theory and particularly in the theory of metals."
1954 Krebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs Bioquímica "In recognition of his discovery of two key reactions in animal metabolism and for his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of cell energetics."
Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft Física "In recognition of his distinguished work on nuclear and atomic physics."
1955 Wigglesworth, VincentVincent Wigglesworth Entomologia "In recognition of his distinguished experimental contributions of outstanding value to many aspects of insect physiology."
Todd, AlexanderAlexander Todd Bioquímica "In recognition of his distinguished work in organic chemistry."
1956 Jones, Owen ThomasOwen Thomas Jones Geologia "In recognition of his distinguished studies in the Palaeozoic rocks, particularly in Wales, his work on sediments, his palaeontological researches and the application of geological knowledge to practical problems."
Hodgkin, Dorothy CrowfootDorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin Química "In recognition of her distinguished work in the elucidation of structures of penicillin, vitamin B12 and other important compounds by the methods of X-ray crystallography."
1957 Gregory, Frederick GugenheimFrederick Gugenheim Gregory Botânica "In recognition of his distinguished studies in plant physiology."
Hodge, William Vallance DouglasWilliam Vallance Douglas Hodge Matemática "In recognition of his distinguished work on algebraic geometry."
1958 Hodgkin, Alan LloydAlan Lloyd Hodgkin Fisiologia "In recognition of his distinguished work on the mechanism of excitation and conduction in nerve and muscle."
Massey, HarrieHarrie Massey Física "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to physics, and particularly for his experimental and theoretical studies of collision phenomena in gases."
1959 Medawar, Peter BrianPeter Brian Medawar Fisiologia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions in the field of tissue transplantation immunity and acquired tolerance."
Peierls, RudolfRudolf Peierls Física "In recognition of his distinguished work on the theoretical foundations of high energy and nuclear physics."
1960 Cameron, RoyRoy Cameron Patologia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions in the field of cellular pathology"
Lovell, BernardBernard Lovell Física "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to radio astronomy."
1961 Clark, Wilfrid Le GrosWilfrid Le Gros Clark Fisiologia "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to neuroanatomy and primate morphology, which he has combined to provide new knowledge of human evolution."
Powell, Cecil FrankCecil Frank Powell Física "In recognition of his pioneering work on the development of the photographic emulsion technique in the investigation of cosmic rays and the outstanding results derived therefrom on the elementary particles in cosmic radiation."
1962 Eccles, JohnJohn Eccles Neurofisiologia "In recognition of his distinguished investigations of the function of the spinal cord, particularly of the mechanisms of excitation and inhibition."
Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Astrofísica "In recognition of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics, particularly those related to the stability of convective motions in fluids with and without magnetic fields."
1963 Read, Herbert HaroldHerbert Harold Read Geologia "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the understanding of the processes of rock metamorphism and the origins of granite."
Hill, RobertRobert Hill Bioquímica "In recognition of his distinguished work in biochemistry of plants, especially for his contributions to knowledge of photosynthesis."
1964 Brambell, FrancisFrancis Brambell Medicina "In recognition of his important contribution to our understanding of the passage of protein from maternal to foetal circulations."
Lighthill, Michael JamesMichael James Lighthill Aeroacústica "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the flow of compressible gases, and the mathematical theory of distributions."
1965 Husband, Henry CharlesHenry Charles Husband Engenharia "In recognition of his distinguished work in many aspects of engineering, particularly for his design studies of large structures such as those exemplified in the radio telescopes at Jodrell Bank and Goonhilly Downs."
Kendrew, John CowderyJohn Cowdery Kendrew Cristalografia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the complete structural analysis of a protein molecule (myoglobin), particularly the biological aspects of this study."
Lyttleton, RaymondRaymond Lyttleton Astronomia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to astronomy, particularly for his work on the dynamical stability of galaxies."
1966 Cockerell, ChristopherChristopher Cockerell Engenharia "In recognition of his pioneering invention, and major contributions to the subsequent development of hovercraft."
Yates, FrankFrank Yates Biologia estatística "In recognition of his profound and far-reaching contributions to the statistical methods of experimental biology."
Ratcliffe, John AshworthJohn Ashworth Ratcliffe Física "In recognition of his distinguished studies in the ionosphere and on the propagation of radio waves."
1967 Hutchinson, JosephJoseph Hutchinson Biologia "In recognition of his distinguished work on the genetics and evolution of crop-plants with particular reference to cotton."
Young, John ZacharyJohn Zachary Young Neurofisiologia "In recognition of his outstanding researches correlating neural structure with function."
Tilley, Cecil EdgarCecil Edgar Tilley Petrologia "In recognition of his many distinguished contributions in all branches of retrology."
1968 Roberts, GilbertGilbert Roberts Engenharia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to civil engineering, and in particular to the design and construction of long-span suspension bridges."
Morgan, Walter Thomas JamesWalter Thomas James Morgan Bioquímica "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to knowledge of the chemistry of blood-group substances, with special reference to genetical as well as immunological considerations."
Atiyah, MichaelMichael Atiyah Matemática "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to algebraic geometry and to the study of differential equations by the methods of algebraic topology."
1969 Oatley, Charles WilliamCharles William Oatley Engenharia elétrica "In recognition of his distinguished work in the wartime development of radar and latterly for the design and development of a highly successful scanning electron microscope."
Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger Bioquímica "In recognition of his pioneer work on the sequence of amino acids in proteins and of nucleotides of ribonucleic acids."
Deacon, GeorgeGeorge Deacon Oceanografia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to physical oceanography and for his leadership as director of the National Institute of Oceanography."
1970 Baker, John FleetwoodJohn Fleetwood Baker Engenharia "In recognition of his fundamental and applied work on the plastic behaviour and design of framed structures which is now being used throughout the world."
Rushton, William Albert HughWilliam Albert Hugh Rushton Fisiologia "In recognition of his distinguished work on the visual pigments in the living eye and on chemical and nervous adaptation in the retina."
Dunham, Kingsley CharlesKingsley Charles Dunham Geologia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to pure and applied geology, and especially in the field of metallic ore deposits."
1971 Kent, Percy EdwardPercy Edward Kent Geologia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to oil and gas exploration and the geology of oil and gas fields."
Perutz, MaxMax Perutz Biologia "In recognition of his pioneering work on the molecular biology and structure of proteins."
Herzberg, GerhardGerhard Herzberg Física "In recognition of his distinguished experimental researches in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and its applications in chemistry, physics and astronomy."
1972 Lewis, Wilfrid BennettWilfrid Bennett Lewis Física nuclear "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the science and technology of heavy water reactors for power generation."
Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick Biologia "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology."
Barton, DerekDerek Barton Química "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to organic chemistry, especially his theories on the conformation of organic molecules and his syntheses of natural products."
1973 Abraham, EdwardEdward Abraham Biologia "In recognition of his outstanding work on the isolation, characterization and development of the cephalosporin group of antibiotics."
Porter, Rodney RobertRodney Robert Porter Biologia "In recognition of his penetrating investigations on the structure of immunoglobulins."
Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle Astronomia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to radioastronomy."
1974 Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner Biologia "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology concerning the nature of the genetic code and its expression during development."
Edwards, GeorgeGeorge Edwards Engenharia "In recognition of his many contributions to aeronautical engineering, particularly in the realization of supersonic aircraft."
Hoyle, FredFred Hoyle Física "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to theoretical physics and cosmology."
1975 Wallis, BarnesBarnes Wallis Engenharia "In recognition of the originality of his ideas and the determination with which he has pursued them."
Phillips, David ChiltonDavid Chilton Phillips Biologia "In recognition of his solution of the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme and his outstanding contributions to the techniques of x-ray crystallography."
Bullard, Edward CrispEdward Crisp Bullard Geofísica "In recognition of his distinction as a world leader in geophysics, especially the generation of the earths magnetic field, the origin of the oceans and continental drift."
1976 Walsh, AlanAlan Walsh Física "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to emission and infra-red spectroscopy and his origination of the atomic absorption method of quantitative analysis."
Gowans, James LearmonthJames Learmonth Gowans Medicina "In recognition of his distinguished research in the field of immunology, especially as regards the recirculation and immunological role of lymphocytes"
Cornforth, JohnJohn Cornforth Química "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the stereochemical unravelling of the biosynthesis of squalene and cholesterol from acetate and mevalonate."
1977 Adams, JohnJohn Adams Física "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the design and operation of high-energy particle accelerators."
Huxley, HughHugh Huxley Biologia "In recognition of his distinguished research on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of contraction."
Hirsch, PeterPeter Hirsch Ciência dos materiais "In recognition of his distinguished studies of defects in crystals and especially of his elucidation of the process of work hardening."
1978 Kilburn, TomTom Kilburn Engenharia "In recognition of his outstanding individual and continuing contribution to the development of computer hardware in the United Kingdom over the last thirty years."
Gregory, Roderic AlfredRoderic Alfred Gregory Biologia "In recognition of his distinguished studies of the biological activity of peptide hormones in relation to their structure."
Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam Física "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the physics of elementary particles with special reference to the unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions."
1979 Cosslett, Vernon EllisVernon Ellis Cosslett Física "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the design and development of the X-ray microscope, the scanning electron microprobe analyser, the high voltage and ultrahigh resolution (2.5A) electron microscopes and their applications in many disciplines."
Kosterlitz, Hans WalterHans Walter Kosterlitz Biologia "In recognition of his distinguished work on narcotics leading to the discovery in 1975 of the enkephalins."
Frank, Frederick CharlesFrederick Charles Frank Física "In recognition of his outstanding original contributions to the theory of crystal growth, dislocations, phase transformations and polymers, with wide applications in physics, chemistry and geology."
1980 Wild, John PaulJohn Paul Wild Astronomia "In recognition of his conception of the basic principles of the Interscan aircraft instrument landing system and the guidance of its development to a successful conclusion."
Harris, HenryHenry Harris Medicina "In recognition of his development of cell fusion for the study of somatic-cell genetics and differentiation including the genetic control of malignancy."
Wilkinson, DenysDenys Wilkinson Física "In recognition of his highly original research in nuclear physics and of his outstanding contributions on giant resonances, radiative widths, second-class beta decay and the fundamental symmetries of nuclear interactions and also on instrumentation."
1981 Riley, RalphRalph Riley Genética "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to understanding the genetics of wheat and the development of new methods of producing improved varieties."
Vogt, Marthe LouiseMarthe Louise Vogt Neurociência "In recognition of her important contributions to synaptic biochemistry and pharmacology which are fundamental to modern neuropharmacology."
Wilkinson, GeoffreyGeoffrey Wilkinson Química "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to preparative inorganic chemistry and in particular to the synthesis and application of organometallic compounds."
1982 Milstein, CésarCésar Milstein Bioquímica "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to understanding the structure and genetic control of immunoglobulins; his hybridoma technique for producing monoclonal antibodies has revolutionized the potential practical applications of immunology."
Hawthorne, WilliamWilliam Hawthorne Engenharia "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to engineering thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, and particularly the internal aerodynamics of turbomachines."
Dalitz, RichardRichard Dalitz Física "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to particle physics, particularly in relation to the properties of strange particles."
1983 Bradley, Daniel JosephDaniel Joseph Bradley Física "In recognition of his development of the techniques of generating ultra-short light pulses from lasers, and of picosecond streak cameras."
Feldberg, Wilhelm SiegmundWilhelm Siegmund Feldberg Biologia "In recognition of his contributions to elucidating the nature of chemical synaptic transmission in nervous systems and the regulating effects of hormones in peripheral systems."
Kingman, JohnJohn Kingman Matemática "In recognition of his distinguished researches on queuing theory, on regenerative phenomena, and on mathematical genetics."
1984 Cullen, Alexander LambAlexander Lamb Cullen Engenharia elétrica "In recognition of his many distinguished contributions to microwave engineering, both theoretical and experimental, and in particular for research on microwave antennae."
Lyon, Mary FrancesMary Frances Lyon Genética "In recognition of her distinguished contributions to the discovery of X-chromosome inactivation as a mechanism of gene dosage compensation."
Battersby, AlanAlan Battersby Química "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the elucidation of the pathway for the biosynthesis of complex natural products."
1985 Argyris, JohnJohn Argyris Engenharia "For his great contribution to the development of finite element analysis and its application to the solution of engineering problems."
Gurdon, JohnJohn Gurdon Biologia "For his outstanding contributions to the techniques of nuclear transplantation and the use of the amphibian egg for investigations on replication, transcription and translation of genes."
Penrose, RogerRoger Penrose Física "For his fundamental contributions to the theory of gravitational collapse and to other geometric aspects of theoretical physics."
1986 Ash, EricEric Ash Engenharia elétrica "In recognition of his outstanding researches on acoustic microscopy leading to wholly new techniques and substantial improvements in resolution of acoustic microscopes."
Doll, RichardRichard Doll Fisiologia "In recognition of his pioneering use of statistical and epidemiological techniques to evaluate environmental factors in disease, notably that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis."
Richards, RexRex Richards Química "In recognition of his many contributions, both theoretical and instrumental, to nuclear magnetic resonance."
1987 Born, Gustav Victor RudolfGustav Victor Rudolf Born Farmacologia "In recognition of his major contributions to the physiology, pathology and pharmacology of platelets and of his widely used methods for studying platelet function in haemostasis and thrombosis."
Denton, Eric JamesEric James Denton Biologia marinha "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the physiology of marine animals, to marine biology generally, and his leadership of U.K. marine science."
Graham-Smith, FrancisFrancis Graham-Smith Astronomia "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to radio- and optical-astronomy."
1988 Barlow, HaroldHarold Barlow Engenharia "In recognition of his distinguished research, particularly on microwaves and waveguides, and of his lasting influence as the founder of an unusually productive research school."
Watkins, WinifredWinifred Watkins Bioquímica "In recognition of her fundamental contributions towards an understanding of the biochemical genetics of carbohydrate antigens on cell surfaces and in secreted glycoproteins."
Batchelor, GeorgeGeorge Batchelor Matemática "In recognition of his distinguished work on the theory of turbulence and turbulent diffusion, and the theory of microhydrodynamics and colloidal suspensions."
1989 Vane, JohnJohn Vane Farmacologia "In recognition of his development of techniques to detect and monitor substances in the blood that regulate the circulation, and their application to the treatment of vascular and ischaemic conditions."
Weatherall, DavidDavid Weatherall Medicina "In recognition of his pioneering work on the clinical and molecular basis of the thalassaemias, and fundamental contributions to the unravelling of their heterogeneity."
Polanyi, John CharlesJohn Charles Polanyi Química "In recognition of his pioneering work on the electromagnetic radiation emitted from chemical charges, leading to the basis of the chemical laser process."
1990 Zienkiewicz, OlgierdOlgierd Zienkiewicz Engenharia "In recognition of his pioneering development of the finite element method as a general procedure of solving problems of engineering physics and for demonstrating its success in applications to stress analysis, fluid mechanics, electromagnetics and many other situations."
McLaren, AnneAnne McLaren Biologia do desenvolvimento "In recognition of her distinguished research on mammalian embryology, particularly for providing much of the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, and for analysing sex determination in mammals."
Berry, MichaelMichael Berry Física "In recognition of his deep and innovatory researches in classical and quantum physics, especially the discovery of the "Berry phase"."
1991 Mason, JohnJohn Mason Física "In recognition of his distinguished research on cloud physics and, as Director-General of the Meteorological Office, his broadening and strengthening of research in meteorology in the UK."
Berridge, MichaelMichael Berridge Biologia "In recognition of his discovery that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate functions as a second messenger to mobilize calcium."
McKenzie, Dan PeterDan Peter McKenzie Geofísica "In recognition of his seminal role in developing a quantitative understanding of a wide range of geophysical and geological processes, including plate tectonics, mantle convection, continental deformation and melt segregation."
1992 Tabor, DavidDavid Tabor Física "for his seminal contributions to the basic study of friction and wear between solids, of considerable relevance to the design of machines."
Epstein, Michael AnthonyMichael Anthony Epstein Medicina "distinguished for the isolation of the Epstein-Barr virus which is closely associated with Burkitts lymphoma."
Donaldson, SimonSimon Donaldson Matemática "distinguished for his work which has revolutionized our understanding of four-dimensional geometry."
1993 Hill, RodneyRodney Hill Matemática aplicada "for his outstanding contribution to the theoretical mechanics of solids, and especially the plasticity of solids."
Barlow, HoraceHorace Barlow Neurociência "for his outstanding and original contributions to electrophysiological, computational and psychophysical study of visual sensation and perception."
Heine, VolkerVolker Heine Física "In recognition of his contributions to solid state theory, in particular the bonding and structure of solids."
1994 Moncada, SalvadorSalvador Moncada Farmacologia "for his contributions to pharmacology and the discovery of basic mechanisms of signal transmission relevant to drug action."
Mansfield, EricEric Mansfield Aeronáutica "for his many fundamental and analytical contributions to our knowledge of advanced aeronautical structures, and more recently to the biological sciences."
Chandrasekhar, SivaramakrishnaSivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar Física "his many new discoveries in the understanding of liquid crystals, for a synthesis of the subject of his seminal book, "The invention of discotic liquid crystals", and for elucidating their remarkable properties."
1995 Metcalf, DonaldDonald Metcalf Medicina "In recognition of his discovery of colony stimulating factors which regulate the growth and differentiation of normal hematopoietic and leukemic cells."
Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse Bioquímica "In recognition of his work on the control of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells by his discovery of the identity and function of genes that regulate the key control points in the process of cell proliferation."
Williams, RobertRobert Williams Química "In recognition of his contributions in clearly presenting the role of inorganic elements in biological systems."
1996 Hinde, RobertRobert Hinde Zoologia "In recognition of his contributions to the field of animal behaviour and the dominant influence it achieved on the emerging field of ethology."
Heslop-Harrison, JackJack Heslop-Harrison Botânica "In recognition of his pioneering work in plant reproductive biology, in particular the areas of taxonomy and ecology, whole plant physiology, development of sub-cellular systems in somatic and reproductive cells, pollen/stigma interactions and acto/myosin transport systems within the pollen tube."
Wiles, AndrewAndrew Wiles Matemática "In recognition of his achievements in number theory, in particular Fermats Last Theorem and his achievements in algebraic number theory particularly the celebrated main conjecture on cyclotomic fields."
1997 Eglinton, GeoffreyGeoffrey Eglinton Química "In recognition of his contribution to our understanding of the way in which chemicals move from the living biosphere to the fossil geosphere, in particular the origin, genesis, maturation and migration of oil which has had great repercussions on the petroleum industry."
Smith, John MaynardJohn Maynard Smith Biologia "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to evolutionary biology, combining mathematics and biology to develop a sound understanding in such fields as population dynamics, paleobiology, ethology, behavioural ecology, bacteriology and genetics."
Perkins, Donald HillDonald Hill Perkins Física "In recognition of his contributions to experimental particle physics, in particular the elucidation of the structure of the nucleon on the basis of observations of neutrino interactions, the quark substructure of the nucleon, and production of the first quantitative evidence for the validity of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)."
1998 Southern, EdwinEdwin Southern Bioquímica "In recognition of his development of the method of transferring spatial patterns of DNA fragments from the electrophoretic separation medium to membranes on which the hybridisation could occur known as southern blotting, now a fundamental technique in molecular biology."
Miledi, RicardoRicardo Miledi Neurociência "In recognition of his many important discoveries in cellular and molecular physiology which have greatly advanced our knowledge of synaptic transmission in the nervous system and of long term effects of trophic interaction between neurones and effector cells."
Bradley, Donald CharltonDonald Charlton Bradley Química "In recognition of his pioneering work on the molecular chemistry of metal-alkoxides and metal-amides, their synthesis, structure and bonding, and for his studies of their conversions to metal-oxides and metal-nitrides, processes which now find common place applications in materials science, especially in the fields of microelectronics and chemical vapour deposition."
1999 Davidson, John FrankJohn Frank Davidson Química "In recognition of his distinguished work over many years in chemical engineering, including fluid flow, process dynamics, gas absorption and fluidization technology which has been concerned with real problems of industrial significance."
Wall, Patrick DavidPatrick David Wall Neurociência "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to our knowledge of the somatosensory system and, in particular, pain mechanisms, where his insights led to the therapeutic use of electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, dorsal columns of the spinal cord, and brain stem for the control of pain, methods that are now in widespread use."
Howie, ArchibaldArchibald Howie Física "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the development and application of electron microscopy of materials, and to the underlying theories of electron scattering, in particular his extensive contributions to inelastic scattering theory, his systematic high resolution microscope studies of amorphous materials, his introduction of the concept of coherence volume for hollow cone dark field imaging and his pioneering use of a high angle annular dark field detector to image small catalyst particles."
2000 Berners-Lee, TimTim Berners-Lee Ciência da computação "In recognition of his invention and subsequent development of the World Wide Web, designing the universal resource locator (URL), an addressing system to give each Web page a unique location and the two protocols HTTP and HTML."
Burnstock, GeoffreyGeoffrey Burnstock Neurociência "In recognition of his development of new hypotheses challenging the accepted views on autonomic neurotransmission, leading to new advances in the understanding of purinergic neurotransmission."
Ingold, Keith UsherwoodKeith Usherwood Ingold Química "In recognition of his work in elucidating the mechanism of reactions involving free radicals."

2001 — 2014[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Nome Campo Motivo
2001 Gardner, RichardRichard Gardner Biologia "In recognition of his pioneering work on microsurgery of the mouse blastocyst which laid the foundation for major advances in biological knowledge, both in developmental biology and in understanding of gene function."
Horn, GabrielGabriel Horn Biologia "In recognition of his work on the neurobiological mechanisms of behavioural imprinting, embracing molecular, cellular, anatomical, electrophysiological and ethological approaches to learning and memory."
Edwards, SamuelSamuel Edwards Física "In recognition of his enormous influence across a wide spectrum of physical sciences, particularly theoretical condensed matter physics."
2002 Peto, RichardRichard Peto Matemática "In recognition of his outstanding work on the epidemiology of smoking and chronic disease."
Cory, SuzanneSuzanne Cory Genética "In recognition of her distinguished work on the molecular basis of cancer. She pioneered the use of transgenic mice to elucidate the role of various oncogenes in lymphoid malignancies."
Freeman, RayRay Freeman Química "In recognition of his seminal contributions to the development and understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods"
2003 Skehel, JohnJohn Skehel Virologia "In recognition of his pioneering research into virology. His studies and discoveries in the mechanisms by which influenza virus binds to the host cell, and in virus-cell membrane fusion have had a fundamental impact on the field."
Johnson, Kenneth LangstrethKenneth Langstreth Johnson Engenharia "In recognition of his outstanding work in the field of contact mechanics. His work his characterised by elegant experiments, skilful analyses and insightful explanations of observed phenomena."
Shackleton, NicholasNicholas Shackleton Geologia "in recognition of his seminal contributions to the fields of paleoceanography and geochemistry."
2004 Black, JamesJames Black Química "In recognition of his work in both academia and industry, pioneering a new era of rational drug discovery."
Jeffreys, AlecAlec Jeffreys Genética "In recognition of his outstanding discoveries and inventions which have had major impacts on large areas of genetics. "
Lewis, JackJack Lewis Química "In recognition of his distinguished career in the field of inorganic chemistry over the last 50 years, mainly in the area of the transition elements."
2005 Pepper, MichaelMichael Pepper Física "In recognition of his work which has had the highest level of influence in condensed matter physics and has resulted in the creation of the modern field of semiconductor nanostructures."
Pawson, AnthonyAnthony Pawson Biologia "In recognition of his discoveries which have revealed the principles underlying cell signalling, and have been pivotal in understanding pathological states such as cancer."
Fisher, MichaelMichael Fisher Física "In recognition of his seminal contributions to wetting transitions, dislocation melting and criticality of ionic solutions and many other topics in Statistical Mechanics."
2006 Baulcombe, DavidDavid Baulcombe Botânica "In recognition of his profoundly significant recent discoveries for not only plants but for all of biology and for medicine."
Hunt, Richard TimothyRichard Timothy Hunt Bioquímica "discovering a key aspect of cell cycle control, the protein cyclin which is a component of cyclin dependent kinases, demonstrating his ability to grasp the significance of the result outside his immediate sphere of interest."
Pendry, JohnJohn Pendry Física "In recognition of his seminal contributions in surface sciences, disordered systems, photonics and most recently in metamaterials and the concept of the perfect lens."
2007 Lindahl, TomasTomas Lindahl Medicina "making fundamental contributions to our understanding of DNA repair. His achievements stand out for their great originality, breadth and lasting influence."
Hilsum, CyrilCyril Hilsum Física "In recognition of his many outstanding contributions and for continuing to use his prodigious talents on behalf of industry, government and academe to this day."
Feast, JamesJames Feast Química "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to chemical synthesis with far reaching implications, particularly for the field of functional polymeric materials."
2008 Hedges, RobertRobert Hedges Arqueologia "In recognition of his contribution to the rapid development of accelerator mass spectrometry and radiocarbon dating techniques."
Cohen, PhilipPhilip Cohen Bioquímica "In recognition of his major contribution to our understanding of the role of protein phosphorylation in cell regulation."
Fersht, AlanAlan Fersht Química "In recognition of his seminal work in protein engineering, which he has developed into a fundamental tool in enzyme analysis and the problem of protein folding."
2009 Rao, ChintamaniChintamani Rao Química "For his highly innovative and diverse contributions to solid-state and materials chemistry."
Laskey, RonaldRonald Laskey Biologia molecular "For his pivotal contributions to our understanding of the control of DNA replication and nuclear protein transport, which has led to a novel screening method for cancer diagnosis."
Dobson, ChrisChris Dobson Biofísica "For his outstanding contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms of protein folding and mis-folding, and the implications for disease."
2010 Knight, PeterPeter Knight Óptica quântica "For his pioneering research and international leadership in the field of quantum optics and quantum information science."
Surani, AzimAzim Surani Biologia "For his pivotal contributions to the understanding of early mammalian development."
Hill, AllenAllen Hill Química "For his pioneering work on protein electrochemistry, which revolutionised the diagnostic testing of glucose and many other bioelectrochemical assays."
2011 Ley, StevenSteven Ley Química "For his pioneering research in organic chemistry and outstanding contributions to the methodology of synthesis."
Holliday, RobinRobin Holliday Biologia "For his highly influential discoveries of the 'Holliday junction' structure in meiotic recombination and the function of DNA methylation at CG base pairs."
Winter, GregoryGregory Winter Biologia "For his pioneering work in protein engineering and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and his contributions as an inventor and entrepreneur."
2012 Kibble, TomTom Kibble Física "For his theories of symmetry-breaking in quantum field theory, with diverse applications to elementary particle masses, vortex formation in Helium 3 and structure formation in the early universe."
Murray, KennethKenneth Murray Biologia "For his crucial contributions to the development of genetic engineering, to biotechnology and to the study of hepatitis viruses."
Holmes, Andrew BruceAndrew Bruce Holmes Química "For his outstanding contributions to chemical synthesis at the interface between materials and biology and pioneering the field of organic electronic materials."
2013 Baxter, RodneyRodney Baxter Física "For his remarkable exact solutions of fundamental models in statistical mechanics."
Bodmer, WalterWalter Bodmer Genética "For seminal contributions to population genetics, gene mapping and understanding of familial genetic disease."
Wells, Peter Neil TemplePeter Neil Temple Wells Física médica "For pioneering the application of the physical and engineering sciences to the development of ultrasonics as a diagnostic and surgical tool which has revolutionised clinical practice."
2014 Tao, TerenceTerence Tao Matemática "for his many deep and varied contributions to mathematics, including harmonic analysis, prime number theory, partial differential equations, combinatorics, computer science, statistics, representation theory, and much more."
Hunter, Anthony RexAnthony Rex Hunter Bioquímica "for his discovery of tyrosine phosphorylation by src protein kinase that revolutionised our understanding of cellular signal transduction."
Morris, HowardHoward Morris Biofísica "for his pioneering work in biomolecular mass spectrometry including strategy and instrument design and for outstanding entrepreneurship in biopharmaceutical characterisation."

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