Lista das universidades mais antigas do mundo
Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.
(Redirecionado de Anexo:Lista das universidades mais antigas do mundo)
Universidades mais antigas por país ou região após 1500[editar | editar código-fonte]
A maioria dos países europeus já tinham universidades antes de 1500. Depois de 1500, várias universidades começaram a aparecer em outros países ao redor do mundo:
- Sanz, Nuria; Bergan, Sjur (eds.): The Heritage of European Universities, Council of Europe, 2002, ISBN 978-92-871-4960-2, p. 119:
In many respects, if there is any institution that Europe can most justifiably claim as one of its inventions, it is the university. As proof thereof and without wishing here to recount the whole history of the birth of universities, it will suffice to describe briefly how the invention of universities took the form of a polycentric process of specifically European origin.
- Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX:
The university is a European institution; indeed, it is the European institution par excellence. There are various reasons for this assertion. As a community of teachers and taught, accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy and the determination and realization of curricula (courses of study) and of the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognized degrees, it is a creation of medieval Europe, which was the Europe of papal Christianity...No other European institution has spread over the entire world in the way in which the traditional form of the European university has done. The degrees awarded by European universities – the bachelor's degree, the licentiate, the master's degree, and the doctorate – have been adopted in the most diverse societies throughout the world. The four medieval faculties of artes – variously called philosophy, letters, arts, arts and sciences, and humanities –, law, medicine, and theology have survived and have been supplemented by numerous disciplines, particularly the social sciences and technological studies, but they remain none the less at the heart of universities throughout the world. Even the name of the universitas, which in the Middle Ages was applied to corporate bodies of the most diverse sorts and was accordingly applied to the corporate organization of teachers and students, has in the course of centuries been given a more particular focus: the university, as a universitas litterarum, has since the eighteenth century been the intellectual institution which cultivates and transmits the entire corpus of methodically studied intellectual disciplines.
- Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp. 35–76 (35):
No one today would dispute the fact that universities, in the sense in which the term is now generally understood, were a creation of the Middle Ages, appearing for the first time between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It is no doubt true that other civilizations, prior to, or wholly alien to, the medieval West, such as the Roman Empire, Byzantium, Islam, or China, were familiar with forms of higher education which a number of historians, for the sake of convenience, have sometimes described as universities.Yet a closer look makes it plain that the institutional reality was altogether different and, no matter what has been said on the subject, there is no real link such as would justify us in associating them with medieval universities in the West. Until there is definite proof to the contrary, these latter must be regarded as the sole source of the model which gradually spread through the whole of Europe and then to the whole world. We are therefore concerned with what is indisputably an original institution, which can only be defined in terms of a historical analysis of its emergence and its mode of operation in concrete circumstances.
- Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 (264):
Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe. Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day. But back in the Middle Ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere.
- Vauchez, André; Dobson, Richard Barrie; Lapidge, Michael (eds.): Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Vol. 1, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1, p. 1484 ("university")
- Encyclopædia Britannica: "University", 2012, retrieved 26 July 2012
- The Catholic Encyclopedia: "Universities", Vol. 15, Robert Appleton Company, New York, 1912, retrieved 27 July 2012
- Lexikon des Mittelalters: "Universität. Die Anfänge", Vol. 8, Cols 1249–1250, Metzler, Stuttgart, –1999
- Brill's New Pauly: "University", Brill, 2012
- The Guinness Book Of Records, Published 1998, ISBN 0-553-57895-2, p. 242
- [UNESCO World Heritage Center,The Medina of Fez http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/170]
- «Qarawiyin». Consultado em 8 December 2011.
- The Report: Morocco 2009 - Page 252 Oxford Business Group "... yet for many Morocco's cultural, artistic and spiritual capital remains Fez. The best-preserved ... School has been in session at Karaouine University since 859, making it the world's oldest continuously operating university. "
- John Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-1951-2559-2), p. 328
- Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World, Publisher: Marshall Cavendish, 2010  p. 161
- Hidden Giants, 2nd Edition, by Sethanne Howard, Publisher: Lulu.com 2008  p.60
- Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson, Publisher: Allen Lane 2011 - ISBN 9781846142734
- The marketisation of higher education and the student as consumer by Mike Molesworth & Richard Scullion, Publisher: Taylor & Francis 2010  p. 26
- Frommer's Morocco by Darren Humphrys, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons 2010  p. 223