Cronologia da descoberta dos elementos químicos

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A descoberta dos elementos atualmente conhecidos estão listadas aqui em ordem cronológica. Os elementos são listados geralmente na ordem em que foi primeiramente definido como um elemento puro, como a data exata da descoberta da maioria dos elementos não podem ser precisamente definidas.

A lista contém o nome, número atômico, ano do primeiro relato, nome do descobridor, e algumas notas sobre a descoberta.

Descobertas não registradas[editar | editar código-fonte]

Z
Nome
Mais antigo uso
Amostra
existente
mais
antiga
Descobridores Local da
amostra mais
antiga
Notas
29 Cobre 9000 BC 6000 BC Middle East Anatolia Copper was probably the first metal mined and crafted by man.[1] It was originally obtained as a native metal and later from smelting ores. Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BC in the Middle East. It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the copper and bronze ages. Copper beads dating from 6000 BC have been found in Çatal Höyük, Anatolia.[2]
79 Ouro before 6000 BC 5500 BC Middle East Egypt Archaeologists suggest that the first use of gold began with the first civilizations in the Middle East. It may have been the first metal used by humans. The oldest remaining gold jewelry is that in the tomb of Egyptian Queen ZerPredefinição:Dubious.[3][4]
82 Chumbo 7000 BC 3800 BC Near East Abydos, Egypt It is believed that lead smelting began at least 9000 years ago, and the oldest known artifact of lead is a statuette found at the temple of Osiris on the site of Abydos dated circa 3800 BC.[5]
47 Prata before 5000 BC ~4000 BC ? Asia Minor Estimated to have been discovered shortly after copper and gold.[6][7]
26 Ferro before 5000 BC 4000 BC ? Egypt There is evidence that iron was known from before 5000 BC.[8] The oldest known iron objects used by humans are some beads of meteoric iron, made in Egypt in about 4000 BC. The discovery of smelting around 3000 BC led to the start of the iron age around 1200 BC[necessário esclarecer] and the prominent use of iron for tools and weapons.[9]
6 Carbono 3750 BC ? Egyptians and Sumerians ? The earliest known use of charcoal was for the reduction of copper, zinc and tin ores in the manufacture of bronze, by the Egyptians and Samaritans.[10] Diamonds were probably known as early as 2500 BC.[11] The first true chemical analyses were made in the 18th century,[12] and in 1789 carbon was listed by Antoine Lavoisier as an element.[13]
50 Estanho 3500 BC 2000 BC ? ? First smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BC to produce bronze and brass.[14] The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BC.[15]
16 Enxofre before 2000 BC ? Chinese/Indians ? First used at least 4000 years ago.[16] Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier in 1777.
80 Mercúrio before 2000 BC 1500 BC Chinese/Indians Egypt Known to ancient Chinese and Indians before 2000 BC, and found in Egyptian tombs dating from 1500 BC.[17]
30 Zinco before 1000 BC 1000 BC Indian metallurgists Indian subcontinent Extracted as a metal since antiquity (before 1000 BC) by Indian metallurgists, but the true nature of this metal was not understood in ancient times. Identified as a unique metal by the metallurgist Rasaratna Samuccaya in 800[18] and by the alchemist Paracelsus in 1526.[19] Isolated by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf in 1746.
33 Arsênio 2500 BC/1250 AD bronze age A.Magnus In use in the early bronze age; Albertus Magnus was the first European to isolate the element in 1250.[20][21] In 1649, Johann Schröder published two ways of preparing elemental arsenic.
51 Antimónio 3000 BC In widespread use in Egypt and the Middle East.Predefinição:When Basilius Valentinus was the first European to describe the element around 1450.[20][21] First description of a procedure for isolating elemental antimony in 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio.
83 Bismuto 1753 C.F.Geoffroy Described in writings attributed to Basilius Valentinus around 1450.[20] Definitively identified by Claude François Geoffroy in 1753.[21]

Descobertas registradas[editar | editar código-fonte]

Z
Nome do
elemento
Observado ou
predito
Isolamento
(amplamente conhecido)

Observador
Primeiro a
isolar
Notas
15 Fósforo 1669 1669 H.Brand H.Brand Prepared from urine, it was the first element to be chemically discovered.[22]
27 Cobalto 1732 ? G.Brandt ? Proved that the blue color of glass is due to a new kind of metal and not bismuth as thought previously.
78 Platina 1735 1735 A.de Ulloa A. de Ulloa First description of a metal found in South American gold was in 1557 by Julius Caesar Scaliger. Ulloa published his findings in 1748, but Sir Charles Wood also investigated the metal in 1741. First reference to it as a new metal was made by William Brownrigg in 1750.[23]
28 Níquel 1751 1751 A.F.Cronstedt A.F.Cronstedt Found by attempting to extract copper from the mineral known as "fake copper" (now known as niccolite).[24]
12 Magnésio 1755 1808 J.Black H.Davy Black observed that magnesia alba (MgO) was not quicklime (CaO). Davy isolated the metal electrochemically from magnesia.[25]
1 Hidrogênio 1766 1500 H.Cavendish Paracelsus Cavendish was the first to distinguish H2 from other gases, although Paracelsus around 1500, Robert Boyle, and Joseph Priestley had observed its production by reacting strong acids with metals. Lavoisier named it in 1793.[26][27]
8 Oxigênio 1771 1771 C.W.Scheele C.W.Scheele Obtained by heating mercuric oxide and nitrates in 1771, but published his findings in 1777. Joseph Priestley also prepared this new air by 1774, but only Lavoisier recognized it as a true element and named it in 1777.[28][29]
7 Nitrogênio 1772 1772 D.Rutherford D.Rutherford He showed that the air in which animals had breathed, even after removal of the exhaled carbon dioxide, was no longer able to burn a candle. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley also studied the element about the same time, and Lavoisier named it in 1775-6.[30]
17 Cloro 1774 1774 C.W.Scheele C.W.Scheele Obtained it from hydrochloric acid, but thought it was an oxide. Only in 1808 Humphry Davy recognized it as an element.[31]
25 Manganês 1770 1774 T.O.Bergman J.G.Gahn Distinguished pyrolusite as the calx of a new metal. Ignatius Gottfred Kaim also discovered the new metal in 1770 and Scheele in 1774 too. It was isolated by reduction of manganese dioxide with carbon.[32]
56 Bário 1772 1808 C.W.Scheele H.Davy Scheele distinguished a new earth (BaO) in pyrolusite and Davy isolated the metal by electrolysis.[33]
42 Molibdénio 1778 1781 C.W.Scheele P.J.Hjelm Scheele recognised as a constituent of molybdena.[34]
52 Telúrio 1782 1795? F.-J.M. von
Reichenstein
M.H.Klaproth Muller observed it as an impurity in gold ores from Transylvania.[35]
74 Tungsténio 1781 1783 T.Bergman J.J.Elhuyar, &F.Elhuyar Bergman obtained from scheelite an oxide of a new element. The Elhuyars obtained tungstic acid from wolframite and reduced it with charcoal.[36]
38 Estrôncio 1787 1808 W.Cruikshank H.Davy Cruikshank and Adair Crawford in 1790 concluded that strontianite contained a new earth. It was eventually isolated electrochemically in 1808 by Humphry Davy.[37]
1789 A.Lavoisier Primeira lista moderna de elementos químicos, contendo entre outros, 23 dos elementos conhecidos na época.[38] Ele também redefiniu o termo "elemento". Antes dele, todos os metais exceto o mercúrio não eram considerados elementos.
40 Zircônio 1789 1824 M.H.Klaproth J.J.Berzelius Klaproth identified a new element in zirconia.[39][40]
92 Urânio 1789 1841 M.H.Klaproth E.-M.Péligot Mistakenly identified a uranium oxide obtained from pitchblende as the element itself and named it after the recently discovered planet Uranus.[41][42]
22 Titânio 1791 1825 W.Gregor J.J.Berzelius Gregor found an oxide of a new metal in ilmenite and Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the element in rutile in 1795 and named it. Pure metallic form was obtained only in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter.[43][44]
39 Ítrio 1794 1840 J.Gadolin C.G.Mosander Discovered in gadolinite, but Mosander showed later that it contained more elements.[45][46]
24 Cromo 1797 1798 L.N.Vauquelin L.N.Vauquelin Discovered and isolated from crocoite.[47]
4 Berílio 1798 1828 L.N.Vauquelin F.Wöhler&A.Bussy Vauquelin discovered the oxide in beryl and emerald, and Klaproth suggested the present name around 1808.[48]
23 Vanádio 1801 1830 A.M.del Río N.G.Sefström Río found the metal in vanadinite but retracted the claim after Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils disputed it. Sefström isolated and named it, and later it was shown that Río had been right in the first place.[49]
41 Nióbio 1801 1864 C.Hatchett C.W.Blomstrand Hatchett found the element in columbite ore and named it columbium. Heinrich Rose proved in 1844 that the element is distinct from tantalum, and renamed it niobium which was officially accepted in 1949.[50]
73 Tântalo 1802 ? A.G.Ekeberg ? Ekeberg found another element in minerals similar to columbite and in 1844, Heinrich Rose proved that it was distinct from niobium.[51]
46 Paládio 1803 1803 W.H.Wollaston W.H.Wollaston Wollaston discovered it in samples of platinum from South America, but did not publish his results immediately. He had intended to name it after the newly discovered asteroid, Ceres, but by the time he published his results in 1804, cerium had taken that name. Wollaston named it after the more recently discovered asteroid Pallas.[52]
58 Cério 1803 1839 M.H.Klaproth,
J.J.Berzelius &
W.Hisinger
C.G.Mosander Berzelius and Hisinger discovered the element in ceria and named it after the newly discovered asteroid (then considered a planet), Ceres. Klaproth discovered it simultaneously and independently in some tantalum samples. Mosander proved later that the samples of all three researchers had at least another element in it, lanthanum.[53]
76 Ósmio 1803 1803 S.Tennant S.Tennant Tennant had been working on samples of South American platinum in parallel with Wollaston and discovered two new elements, which he named osmium and iridium.[54]
77 Irídio 1803 1803 S.Tennant S.Tennant Tennant had been working on samples of South American platinum in parallel with Wollaston and discovered two new elements, which he named osmium and iridium, and published the iridium results in 1804.[55]
45 Ródio 1804 1804 W.H.Wollaston W.H.Wollaston Wollaston discovered and isolated it from crude platinum samples from South America.[56]
19 Potássio 1807 1807 H.Davy H.Davy Davy discovered it by using electrolysis on potash.[57]
11 Sódio 1807 1807 H.Davy H.Davy Davy discovered it a few days after potassium, by using electrolysis on sodium hydroxide.[58]
20 Cálcio 1808 1808 H.Davy H.Davy Davy discovered the metal by electrolysis of quicklime.[58]
5 Boro 1808 1808 J.L.Gay-Lussac &
L.J.Thénard
H.Davy On June 30, 1808, Lussac and Thénard announced a new element in sedative salt, and nine days later Davy announced the isolation of metallic boron.[59]
53 Iodo 1811 1811 B.Courtois B.Courtois Courtois discovered it in the ashes of sea weed.[60]
3 Lítio 1817 1817 J.A.Arfwedson J.A.Arfwedson Arfwedson discovered the alkali in petalite.[61]
48 Cádmio 1817 1817 K.S.L Hermann,
F.Stromeyer&
J.C.H. Roloff
K.S.L Hermann,
F. Stromeyer,
J.C.H. Roloff
All three found an unknown metal in a sample of zinc oxide from Silesia, but the name that Stromeyer gave became the accepted one.[62]
34 Selênio 1817 1817 J.J.Berzelius &
J.G.Gahn
J.J.Berzelius &
J.G.Gahn
While working with lead they discovered a substance that they thought it is tellurium, and after realizing it is different.[63]
14 Silício 1824 1824 J.J.Berzelius J.J.Berzelius Humphry Davy thought in 1800 that silica is an element, not a compound, and in 1808 suggested the present name. In 1811 Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure silicon, but Berzelius is credited with the discovery for obtaining the pure element in 1824.[64]
13 Alumínio 1825 1825 H.C.Ørsted H.C.Ørsted Antoine Lavoisier predicted in 1787 that alumine is the oxide of an undiscovered element, and in 1808 Humphry Davy tried to decompose it, and although failed, suggested the present name. Hans Christian Ørsted was the first to isolate metallic aluminum in 1825.[65]
35 Bromo 1825 1825 A.J.Balard,
L.Gmelin
A.J.Balard &
L.Gmelin
They both discovered the element in the Autumn of 1825, and published the results next year.[66]
90 Tório 1829 ? J.J.Berzelius ? Berzelius obtained the oxide of a new earth in thorite.[67]
57 Lantânio 1838 ? C.G.Mosander ? Mosander found a new element in samples of ceria and published his results in 1842, but later, he showed that this lanthana contained four more elements.[68]
68 Érbio 1842 ? C.G.Mosander ? Mosander managed to split the old yttria into yttria proper and erbia, and later terbia too.[69]
65 Térbio 1842 1842 C.G.Mosander C.G.Mosander In 1842 Mosander split yttria into two more earths, erbia and terbia[70]
44 Rutênio 1807 1844 J.Sniadecki J.Sniadecki Sniadecki isolated the element in 1807 but his work was not ratified. Gottfried Wilhelm Osann thought he found three new metals in Russian platinum samples, and in 1844, Karl Karlovich Klaus confirmed that there was a new element. The latter is usually recognized as the discoverer of the element.[71]
55 Césio 1860 1882 R.W.Bunsen &
G.R.Kirchhoff
C.Setterberg Bunsen and Kirchhoff were the first to suggest finding new elements by spectrum analysis. They discovered caesium by its two blue emission lines in a sample of Dürkheim mineral water.[72] The pure metal was eventually isolated in 1882 by Setterberg.[73]
37 Rubídio 1861 ? R.W.Bunsen &
G.R.Kirchhoff
Robert Bunsen Bunsen and Kirchhoff discovered it just a few months after caesium, by observing new spectral lines in the mineral lepidolite. Bunsen never obtained a pure sample of the metal, which was later obtained by Hervesy.[74]
81 Tálio 1861 1862 W.Crookes C.-A.Lamy Shortly after the discovery of rubidium, Crookes found a new green line in a selenium sample and later that year, Lamy found the element to be metallic.[75]
49 Índio 1863 1867 F.Reich &
H.T.Richter
T.Richter Reich and Richter First identified it in sphalerite by its bright indigo-blue spectroscopic emission line. Richter isolated the metal several years later.[76]
2 Hélio 1868 1895 P.Janssen &
J.N.Lockyer
W.Ramsay,
P.T.Cleve&
N.Langlet
Janssen and Lockyer observed independently a yellow spectral line in the solar spectrum that did not match any other element.

Years later, Ramsay, Cleve, and Langlet observed independently the element trapped in cleveite about the same time.[77]

1869
D.I.Mendeleev
Mendeleev arranja os 63 elementos conhecidos na época na primeira tabela periódica moderna e prevê corretamente muitos outros.
31 Gálio 1875 ? P.E.L.de
Boisbaudran
P.E.L.de Boisbaudran Boisbaudran observed on a Pyrenea blende sample some emission lines corresponding to the eka-aluminum that was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 and subsequently isolated the element by electrolysis.[78]
70 Itérbio 1878 ? J.C.G. de
Marignac
? On October 22, 1878, Marignac reported splitting terbia into two new earths, terbia proper and ytterbia.[79]
67 Hólmio 1878 ? M.Delafontaine ? Delafontaine found it in samarskite and next year, Per Teodor Cleve split Marignac's erbia into erbia proper and two new elements, thulium and holmium.[80]
69 Túlio 1879 1879 P.T.Cleve P.T.Cleve Cleve split Marignac's erbia into erbia proper and two new elements, thulium and holmium.[81]
21 Escândio 1879 1879 L.F.Nilson L.F.Nilson Nilson split Marignac's ytterbia into pure one and a new element that matched 1871 Mendeleev's predicted eka-boron.[82]
62 Samário 1879 1879 P.E.L. de
Boisbaudran
P.E.L. de
Boisbaudran
Boisbaudran noted a new earth in samarskite and named it after the mineral.[83]
64 Gadolínio 1880 1886 J.C.G. de
Marignac
F.L. de
Boisbaudran
Marignac initially observed the new earth in terbia and later, Boisbaudran obtained a pure sample from samarskite.[84]
59 Praseodímio 1885 ? C.A.von Welsbach ? Von Welsbach discovered two new distinct elements in ceria: praseodymium and neodymium.[85]
60 Neodímio 1885 ? C.A.von Welsbach ? Von Welsbach discovered two new distinct elements in ceria: praseodymium and neodymium.[86]
66 Disprósio 1886 ? P.E.L. de
Boisbaudran
? De Boisbaudran found a new earth in erbia.[86]
32 Germânio 1886 ? C.A.Winkler ? In February 1886 Winkler found in argyrodite the eka-silicon that Mendeleev had predicted in 1871.[87]
9 Flúor 1886 1886 H.Moissan H.Moissan Lavoisier predicted an element obtained from hydrofluoric acid and between 1812 and 1886 many researchers tried to obtain this element. It was eventually isolated by Moissan.[88]
18 Argônio 1894 1894 Lord Rayleigh &
W.Ramsay
Lord Rayleigh &
W.Ramsay
They discovered the gás by comparing the molecular weights of nitrogen prepared by liquefaction from air and nitrogen prepared by chemical means. It is the first noble gás to be isolated.[89]
36 Criptônio 1898 1898 W.Ramsay &
M.W.Travers
W.Ramsay &
M.W.Travers
On May 30, 1898, Ramsay separated a third noble gás from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[90]
10 Néon 1898 1898 W.Ramsay &
M.W.Travers
W.Ramsay &
M.W.Travers
In June 1898 Ramsay separated a new noble gás from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[90]
54 Xenônio 1898 1898 W.Ramsay &
M.W.Travers
W.Ramsay &
M.W.Travers
On July 12, 1898 Ramsay separated a third noble gás within three weeks, from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[91]
84 Polónio 1898 1902 P.Curie &
M.Curie
W.Marckwald In an experiment done on July 13, 1898, the Curies noted an increased radioactivity in the uranium obtained from pitchblende which they assigned to an unknown element.[92]
88 Rádio 1898 1902 P.Curie &
M.Curie
M. Curie The Curies reported on December 26, 1898, a new element different from polonium, which Marie later isolated from uraninite.[93]
86 Radônio 1898 1910 F.E.Dorn W.Ramsay &
R.Whytlaw-Gray
Dorn discovered a radioactive gás resulting from the radioactive decay of radium, isolated later by Ramsay and Gray.[94][95]
89 Actínio 1899 1899 A.-L.Debierne A.-L.Debierne Debierne obtained from pitchblende a substance that had similar properties to thorium.[96]
63 Európio 1896 1901 E.Demarcay E.Demarcay Demarçay found spectral lines of a new element in Lecoq's samarium, and separated this element several years later.[97]
71 Lutécio 1906 1906 G.Urbain,
C.A. von
Welsbach
G. Urbain &
C.A. von Welsbach
Urbain and von Welsbach proved independently that the old ytterbium did also contain a new element.[98]
75 Rénio 1908 1908 M.Ogawa M.Ogawa Ogawa found it in thorianite but assigned it is element 43 instead of 75 and named it nipponium.[99] In 1922 Walter Noddack, Ida Eva Tacke and Otto Berg announced its separation from gadolinite and gave it the present name.[56]
72 Háfnio 1911 1922 G.Urbain,
V.I.Vernadsky
D.Coster &
G. von
Hevesy
Urbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues, while Vernadsky independently found it in orthite. Neither claims was confirmed due to the World War I. After it, Coster and Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon.[100] It is the last stable element to be discovered.
91 Protactínio 1913 ? O.H.Göhring,
K.Fajans
? The two obtained the first isotope of this element that had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as a member of the natural decay of 238U.[101] Originally isolated in 1900 by William Crookes.[102]
43 Tecnécio 1937 1937 C.Perrier,
E.Segrè
C.Perrier & E.Segrè The two discovered a new element in a molybdenum that was used in a cyclotron, the first synthetic element to be discovered. It had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as eka-manganese.[103][104]
87 Frâncio 1939 1939 M.Perey M.Perey Perey discovered it as a decay product of 227Ac.[105] Francium is the last element to be discovered in nature, rather than synthesized in the lab, although some of the "synthetic" elements that were discovered later (plutonium, neptunium, astatine) were eventually found in trace amounts in nature as well.
85 Astato 1940 ? D.R.Corson,
K.R.Mackenzie,
E.Segrè
? Obtained by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles.[106] Later determined to occur naturally in minuscule quantitites (<25 grams in earth's crust).
93 Neptúnio 1940 ? E.M. McMillan,
P.H.Abelson
? Obtained by irradiating uranium with neutrons, it is the first transuranium element discovered.[107]
94 Plutônio 1940-41 ? G.T.Seaborg,
Arthur C. Wahl,
J.W.Kennedy,
E.M.McMillan
? Prepared by bombardment of uranium with deuterons.[108]
95 Amerício 1944 ? G.T.Seaborg,
R.A.James,
L.O.Morgan &
A.Ghiorso
? Prepared by irradiating plutonium with neutrons during the Manhattan Project.[109]
96 Cúrio 1944 ? G.T.Seaborg,
R.A.James,
A.Ghiorso
? Prepared by bombarding plutonium with alpha particles during the Manhattan Project[110]
61 Promécio 1942 1945 C.S.Wu,
E.G.Segrè,
H.A.Bethe
Charles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, Harold G. Richter It was probably first prepared in 1942 by bombarding neodymium and praseodymium with neutrons, but separation of the element could not be carried out. Isolation was performed under the Manhattan Project in 1945.[85]
97 Berquélio 1949 ? S.G.Thompson,
A.Ghiorso,
G.T.Seaborg
(University of California, Berkeley)
? Created by bombardment of americium with alpha particles.[111]
98 Califórnio 1950 ? S.G.Thompson,
K.Street,Jr.,
A.Ghiorso,
G.T.Seaborg
(University of California, Berkeley)
? Bombardment of curium with alpha particles.[112]
99 Einstênio 1952 1952 A.Ghiorso
et al. (Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory, and University of California, Berkeley)
Formed in the first thermonuclear explosion in November 1952, by irradiation of uranium with neutrons and kept secret for several years.[113]
100 Férmio 1952 ? A.Ghiorso
et al. (Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory, and University of California, Berkeley)
Formed in the first thermonuclear explosion in November 1952, by irradiation of uranium with neutrons and kept secret for several years.[114]
101 Mendelévio 1955 ? A.Ghiorso,
B.G.Harvey,
G.R.Choppin,
S.G.Thompson,
G.T.Seaborg
? Prepared by bombardment of einsteinium with helium.[115]
102 Nobélio 1958 ? A.Ghiorso,
T.Sikkeland,
J.R.Walton,
G.T.Seaborg
? First prepared by bombardment of curium with carbon atoms.[116]
103 Laurêncio 1961 ? A.Ghiorso,
T.Sikkeland,
A.E.Larsh,
R.M.Latimer
? First prepared by bombardment of californium with boron atoms.[117]
104 Rutherfórdio 1968 ? A.Ghiorso,
M.Nurmia,
J.Harris,
K.Eskola,
P.Eskola
? Prepared by bombardment of californium with carbon atoms.[118]
105 Dúbnio 1970 ? A.Ghiorso,
M.Nurmia,
K.Eskola,
J.Harris,
P.Eskola
? By bombardment of californium with nitrogen atoms.[119]
106 Seabórgio 1974 ? A.Ghiorso,
J.Nitschke,
J.Alonso,
C.Alonso,
M.Nurmia,
G. Seaborg,
K.Hulet,
R.W.Lougheed
? Collisions of californium-249 with oxygen atoms.[120]
107 Bório 1981 ? G.Münzenberg
et al. GSI in Darmstadt
? Obtained by bombarding bismuth with chromium.[121]
109 Meitnerio 1982 ? G.Münzenberg,
P.Armbruster
et al. GSI in Darmstadt
? Bombardment of bismuth with iron atoms.[122]
108 Hássio 1984 ? G.Münzenberg,
P.Armbruster
et al. at GSI in Darmstadt
? Bombardment of lead with iron atoms[123]
110 Darmstádio 1994 ? S.Hofmann
et al. at GSI in Darmstadt
? Bombardment of lead with nickel.[124]
111 Roentgênio 1994 ? S.Hofmann
et al. at GSI in Darmstadt
? Bombardment of bismuth with nickel.[125]
112 Copernício 1996 ? S.Hofmann
et al. at GSI in Darmstadt
? Bombardment of lead with zinc.[126][127]
114 Ununquádio 1999 ? Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna ? Bombardment of plutonium with calcium[128]
116 Ununhexio 2000 ? Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna ? Bombardment of curium with calcium[129]

Descobertas recentes[editar | editar código-fonte]

Descobertas não confirmadas
Z
Name
Discovery
year
Discoverer
Notes
118 Ununóctio 2002 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Bombardment of californium with calcium[130]
113 Ununtrio 2003 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decay of ununpentium[131]
115 Ununpentio 2003 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Bombardment of americium with calcium[131]
117 Ununséptio 2010 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Bombardment of berkelium with calcium[132]

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Referências

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  114. «100 Fermium». Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Consultado em 12 de setembro de 2008 
  115. «101 Mendelevium». Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Consultado em 12 de setembro de 2008 
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  117. «103 Lawrencium». Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Consultado em 12 de setembro de 2008 
  118. «104 Rutherfordium». Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Consultado em 12 de setembro de 2008 
  119. «105 Dubnium». Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Consultado em 12 de setembro de 2008 
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