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Tear: diferenças entre revisões

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[[Ficheiro:Telers mecànics.JPG|thumb|right|300px|Tear mecânico.]]
[[Ficheiro:Vincent Willem van Gogh 139.jpg|thumb|right|200px|''Tecelão'', por [[Van Gogh]].]]
Um '''tear''' é um aparelho mecânico ou eletromecânico empregado para fins de [[tecelagem]]. Entre as variedades existentes, há o [[tear de pente liso]] e o tear de tricô (ou de pregos). Uma variedade de importância histórica é o tear de [[Jacquard]].(ah vá).The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented c. 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn, Lancashire in the northwest of England. The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker able to work eight or more spools at once.
* 1 Components
* 2 Operation
* 3 History
* 4 Success
* 5 Origin & myth
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Bibliography
* 9 External links
[edit] Components
The idea was developed as a metal frame with eight wooden spindles at one end. A set of eight rovings was attached to a beam on that frame. The rovings when extended passed through two horizontal bars of wood that could be clasped together. These bars could be drawn along the top of the frame by the spinners left hand thus extending the thread. The spinner used his right hand to rapidly turn a wheel which caused all the spindles to revolve, and the thread to be spun. When the bars were returned the thread wound onto the spindle. A pressing wire (faller) was used to guide the threads onto the right place on the spindle.[1]
[edit] Operation
The carriage was placed at the end of its run closest to the spindles. The spinner (tenter) stood in front of the frame. The rovings were drawn through the cloves (clasp bars of the carriage) and attached to the spindles. The tenter lowered the bottom bar of the carriage, and the carriage drawn to a mark thus pulling out a quantity of rove, known as the draw. The lower bar was raised, clamping the rove and the wheel was turned, turning the spindles while at the same time the carriage was pulled further. This attenuated and twisted the rove. The carriage stopped but the wheel was turned a little further to give extra twist. The carriage was slightly backed and a faller wire lowered onto the threads. As the wheel was slowly turned, the carriage returned to its starting position and the thread was gently wound onto the spindles. The spinner was responsible for operating the wheel and the carriage, and used his judgement as to the amount of extra twist needed and where the faller wire should be located.[2]
[edit] History
James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny. He was born in Oswaldtwistle, near Blackburn, around 1720.
At the time cotton production could not keep up with demand, and Hargreaves spent some time considering how to improve the process. The flying shuttle had increased yarn demand by the weavers by doubling their productivity, and now the spinning jenny could supply that demand by increasing the spinners' productivity even more. The machine produced coarse yarn.
[edit] Success
Hargreaves kept the machine secret for some time, but he produced a number for his own growing industry. The price of yarn fell, angering the large spinning community in Blackburn. Eventually they broke into his house and smashed his machines, forcing him to flee to Nottingham in 1768. There he set up shop producing jennies in secret for one Mr. Shipley, with the assistance of a joiner named James.
Eventually Hargreaves applied for a patent on the jenny in July 1770[3]. By this time a number of spinners in Lancashire were already using copies of the machine, and Hargreaves sent notice that he was taking legal action against them. The manufacturers met, and offered Hargreaves £3000. He at first demanded £7000, and at last stood out for £4000, but the case eventually fell apart when it was learned he had already sold several in the past.
Hargreaves died on April 22, 1778.
The spinning jenny was a huge success due to the fact that it could hold more than one ball of yarn, therefore making more clothing materials in a shorter amount of time while reducing the overall cost. The spinning jenny wouldn't have been such a success if the flying shuttle hadn't been there with it in the textile factories.
The spinning jenny was superseded by the Spinning Mule, and was adapted for the process of slubbing being the basis of the Slubbing Billy [4]
[edit] Origin & myth
The most common story told about the invention of the device and the origin of the 'Jenny' in the machine's name is that a daughter (or his wife) named Jenny knocked over one of their own spinning wheels. The device kept working as normal, with the spindle now pointed upright. Hargreaves realized there was no particular reason the spindles had to be horizontal, as they always had been, and he could place them vertically in a row.
The name is variously said to derive from this tale. The Registers of Church Kirk show that Hargreaves had several daughters, but none named Jenny (neither was his wife). A more likely explanation of the name is that 'Jenny' was an abbreviation of 'engine'.[5]
Thomas Highs of Leigh has also claimed to be the inventor[6] and the story is repeated using his wife's name.
[edit] See also
* Cotton mill
* Spinning Mule
* Textile manufacturing
* Timeline of clothing and textiles technology
* Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution
[edit] References
1. ^ Baines 1835, pp. 157,158
2. ^ Marsden 1884, p. 205
3. ^ Aiken, John. "John Aitken on the industrialisation in and around Manchester, 1795". Retrieved 2009-06-04.
4. ^ Marsden 1884, p. 219
5. ^ Harling, Nick. "James Hargreaves 1720-1778". Cotton Town: Blackburn with Darwen. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
6. ^ Baines 1835, p. 155
[edit] Bibliography
* Baines, Edward (1835). History of the cotton manufacture in Great Britain;. London: H. Fisher, R. Fisher, and P. Jackson.
* Nasmith, Joseph (1895). Recent Cotton Mill Construction and Engineering (Elibron Classics ed.). London: John Heywood. ISBN 1-4021-4558-6.
* Marsden, Richard (1884). Cotton Spinning: its development, principles an practice.. George Bell and Sons 1903. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
* Marsden, ed (1909). Cotton Yearbook 1910. Manchester: Marsden and Co.. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
[edit] External links
* Essay from on Hargreaves and the spinning jenny.
* Essay from on Highs and the spinning jenny.
* Source for alternate name of spinning ginny
* Spinning Jenny Summary
v • d • e
Noil · Rolag · Roving · Sliver · Staple · Top · Tow · Woolen · Worsted
Hermann Sondermann Familie mit Frau am Spinnrad detail.jpg
Carding · Combing · Heckling · Long draw · Scutching · Short draw · Twist per inch
Hand spinning tools
Distaff · Niddy noddy · Spindle · Spinning wheel · Spinners weasel
Industrial spinning
Cotton-spinning machinery · Open end spinning · Ring spinning · Spinning frame · Spinning jenny · Spinning mule · Throstle frame · Water frame · Wool combing machine
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Categories: English inventions | History of Blackburn | History of the textile industry | Industrial Revolution | Spinning
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