Diferenças entre edições de "Sanção penal"

Saltar para a navegação Saltar para a pesquisa
5 575 bytes adicionados ,  12h54min de 1 de fevereiro de 2018
tradução do artigo em inglês adaptado à língua portuguesa
m (peq. ajustes utilizando AWB)
(tradução do artigo em inglês adaptado à língua portuguesa)
Etiqueta: Inserção de predefinição obsoleta
[[Image:Chapeltown Stocks.jpg|thumb|310px|As antigas village stocks em [[Chapeltown, Lancashire]], Inglaterra]]
{{mais-notas|data=Fevereiro de 2008}}
De forma geral, '''punição''', '''castigo''', ou '''sanção penal''' quando aplicadas usando as leis de um país específico, é a imposição de um resultado [[indesejável]] ou desagradável sobre um grupo ou indivíduo, imposto por uma [[autoridade]] - em contextos que vão desde a [[disciplina infantil]] ao [[direito penal]] - como resposta e dissuasão a uma determinada ação ou [[comportamento]] que é considerado indesejável ou inaceitável . O raciocínio pode ser condicionar uma criança a evitar o auto-risco, impor a [[conformidade]] social (em particular, nos contextos de [[educação compulsória]] ou [[disciplina militar]]), defender [[normas]], proteger contra danos futuros (em particular, os [[crimes violentos]]), e manter a [[lei]] - e o [[respeito pela lei]] - sob a qual o grupo social é governado.
A '''sanção penal''' é um tipo de restrição que a lei impõe a um indivíduo por este ter praticado um ato ilícito, antijurídico e culpável. Essa restrição varia de acordo com a reprovabilidade da conduta de agente. É o modo de repressão, pelo poder público, à violação da [[Ordem jurídica|ordem social]]. Consiste numa punição imposta pelo [[Estado]] ao delinquente ou [[contravenção|contraventor]], em [[processo judicial]] de instrução contraditória, por causa de [[crime]] ou [[contravenção]] que tenham cometido, com o fim de exemplificá-los e evitar a prática de novas infrações. É uma sanção que pode ter caráter criminal, civil, fiscal ou administrativo, privativa da liberdade ou pecuniária, entre outras de distinta natureza, cominadas para as [[Infração penal|infrações]] previstas nas respectivas [[lei]]s e, quanto às civis, também nos [[contrato]]s (cláusulas penais).
<ref name=stanford-crimeState>
{{cite web
| last =Hugo
| first =Adam Bedau
| title =Punishment, Crime and the State
| work =
| publisher =Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
| date =February 19, 2010
| url =http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/legal-punishment/#PunCriSta
| accessdate =2010-08-04
|quote=The search for a precise definition of punishment that exercised some philosophers (for discussion and references see Scheid 1980) is likely to prove futile: but we can say that legal punishment involves the imposition of something that is intended to be burdensome or painful, on a supposed offender for a supposed crime, by a person or body who claims the authority to do so.}}
</ref><ref name=punGR> and violates the law or rules by which the group is governed.
{{cite web
| quote =Punishment describes the imposition by some authority of a deprivation—usually painful—on a person who has violated a law, rule, or other norm. When the violation is of the criminal law of society there is a formal process of accusation and proof followed by imposition of a sentence by a designated official, usually a judge. Informally, any organized group—most typically the family, in rearing children—may punish perceived wrongdoers.
| last = McAnany
| first =Patrick D.
| authorlink =
| coauthors =
| title =Punishment
| work =Online
| publisher =Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia
| date =August 2010
| url =http://gme.grolier.com/article?assetid=0238860-0
| doi =
| accessdate =2010-08-04}}
</ref><ref name=stanford-theoryOf>
{{cite web
| last =Hugo
| first =Adam Bedau
| title =Theory of Punishment
| work =
| publisher =Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
| date =February 19, 2010
| url =http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/punishment/#2
| accessdate =2010-08-04
|quote=Punishment under law... is the authorized imposition of deprivations—of freedom or privacy or other goods to which the person otherwise has a right, or the imposition of special burdens—because the person has been found guilty of some criminal violation, typically (though not invariably) involving harm to the innocent. (The classical formulation, conspicuous in Hobbes, for example, defines punishment by reference to imposing pain rather than to deprivations.) This definition, although imperfect because of its brevity, does allow us to bring out several essential points.<!-- author does not seem to present his own def-->}}
</ref><ref name=Peters1966>
{{Cite book
|jstor=3120772
|title=Ethics and Education
|first=Richard Stanley
|authorlink=Richard Stanley Peters
|last=Peters
|year=1966
|pages=267–68
|quote=Punishment... involves the intentional infliction of pain or of something unpleasant on someone who has committed a breach of rules... by someone who is in authority, who has a right to act in this way. Otherwise, it would be impossible to distinguish 'punishment' from 'revenge'. People in authority can, of course, inflict pain on people at whim. But this would be called 'spite' unless it were inflicted as a consequence of a breach of rules on the part of the sufferer. Similarly a person in authority might give a person £5 as a consequence of his breaking a rule. But unless this were regarded as painful or at least unpleasant for the recipient it could not be counted as a case of 'punishment'. In other words at least three criteria of (i) intentional infliction of pain (ii) by someone in authority (iii) on a person as a consequence of a breach of rules on his part, must be satisfied if we are to call something a case of 'punishment'. There are, as is usual in such cases, examples that can be produced which do not satisfy all criteria. For instance there is a colloquialism which is used about boxers taking a lot of punishment from their opponents, in which only the first condition is present. But this is a metaphorical use which is peripheral to the central use of the term.<br /><br />In so far as the different 'theories' of punishment are answers to questions about the meaning of 'punishment', only the retributive theory is a possible one. There is no conceptual connection between 'punishment' and notions like those of 'deterrence', 'prevention' and 'reform'. For people can be punished without being prevented from repeating the offence, and without being made any better. It is also a further question whether they themselves or anyone else is deterred from committing the offence by punishment. But 'punishment' ''must'' involve 'retribution', for 'retribution' implies doing something to someone in return for what he has done.... Punishment, therefore, must be retributive—by definition.}}
</ref><ref name=j-kleining>
{{Cite journal
| last =Kleining
| first =John
| authorlink =
| coauthors =
| title =R.S. Peters on Punishment
| journal =British Journal of Educational Studies
| volume =20
| issue =3
| pages =259–69
| publisher =
| date =October 1972
| jstor =3120772
| quote= Unpleasantness inflicted without authority is revenge, and if whimsical, is spite.... There is no conceptual connection between punishment, or deterrence, or reform, for people can be punished without being prevented from repeating the offence, and without being made better. And it is also a further question whether they themselves, or anyone else is deterred from committing the offence by punishment.
| doi =10.1080/00071005.1972.9973352}}
</ref> O castigo pode ser auto-infligido como com [[auto-flagelação]] e [[mortificação da carne]] no ambiente religioso, mas é na maioria das vezes uma forma de [[coerção]] social.
 
== No Brasil ==
A sanção, ou [[Pena (Direito)|pena]], deverá ser cumprida em [[regime fechado]], se a pena for superior a 8 anos; em [[regime semiaberto]] se a pena for de 4 a 8 anos; e em [[regime aberto]] se a pena for inferior a 4 anos.<ref>''Seção 1ː das Penas Privativas de Liberdade''. Disponível em http://www.soleis.com.br/ebooks/criminal1-9.htm. Acesso em 5 de fevereiro de 2016.</ref>
24

edições

Menu de navegação