Genocídio em Bangladesh em 1971

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O genocídio em Bangladesh começou em 26 de março de 1971 com o lançamento da Operação Holofote, [1] quando o Paquistão Ocidental iniciou uma ofensiva militar na ala oriental do país para reprimir os bengalis que exigiam autodeterminação. [2] Durante os nove meses de uma longa guerra pela independência de Bangladesh, membros das forças armadas paquistanesas e das milícias que as apoiavam assassinaram entre 300 mil [3] e 3.000.000 [4] pessoas e estupraram entre 200.000 a 400.000 mulheres de Bangladesh em uma campanha sistemática de estupro genocida. [5][6]

A guerra também testemunhou a violência sectária entre bengalis e biharis de língua urdu. Há um consenso acadêmico que os acontecimentos que ocorreram durante a guerra de libertação de Bangladesh constituíram um genocídio.[7]


Referências[editar | editar código-fonte]

Bibliografia[editar | editar código-fonte]

  • Beachler, Donald W. (2011). The Genocide Debate: Politicians, Academics, and Victims. [S.l.]: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230114142 
  • Brecher, Michael (2008). International political earthquakes. [S.l.]: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0472070015 
  • D'Costa, Bina (2010). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. [S.l.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-56566-0 
  • Ganguly, Sumit (2002). Conflict Unending: India-Pakistan Tensions Since 1947. [S.l.]: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231123693 
  • Enskat, Mike; Subrata K. Mitra; Clement Spiess (2004). Political Parties in South Asia. [S.l.]: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-96832-8 
  • Hagerty, Devin T.; Ganguly, Šumit (2005). Fearful Symmetry: India-pakistan Crises In The Shadow Of Nuclear Weapons. [S.l.]: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-98635-7 
  • Haggett, Peter (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography: The Indian subcontinent 2nd ed. [S.l.]: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-7289-6 
  • Harder, Hans (2010). Werner Ende, Udo Steinbac, ed. Islam in the World Today: A Handbook of Politics, Religion, Culture, and Society. [S.l.]: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4571-2 
  • Ḥaqqānī, Ḥusain (2005). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. [S.l.]: Carnegie. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1 
  • Hossain, Tania; Tollefson, James W. (2006). «Language policy in education in Bangladesh». In: Amy Tsui, James W. Tollefson. Language Policy, Culture, and Identity in Asian Contexts. [S.l.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8058-5693-4 
  • Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. [S.l.]: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-48618-7 
  • Midlarsky, Manus I. (2011). Origins of Political Extremism: Mass Violence in the Twentieth Century and Beyond. [S.l.]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87708-4 
  • Mookherjee, Nayanika (2009). «Denunciatory practices and the constitutive role of collaboration in the Bangladesh War». In: Sharika Thiranagama, Tobias Kelly. Traitors: Suspicion, Intimacy, and the Ethics of State-Building. [S.l.]: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4213-3 
  • Payaslian, Simon. «20th Century Genocides». Oxford bibliographies 
  • Sajjad, Tazreena (2012). «The Post-Genocidal Period and its Impact on Women». In: Samuel Totten. Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide Reprint ed. [S.l.]: Transaction. pp. 219–248. ISBN 978-1-4128-4759-9 
  • Riedel, Bruce O. (2011). Deadly Embrace: Pakistan, America, and the Future of the Global Jihad. [S.l.]: Brookings Institution. ISBN 978-0-8157-0557-4 
  • Roy, Rituparna (2010). South Asian Partition Fiction in English: From Khushwant Singh to Amitav Ghosh 1st ed. [S.l.]: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-8964-245-5 
  • Saikia, Yasmin (2011). Women, War, and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971. [S.l.]: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-5038-5 
  • Schmid, Alex, ed. (2011). The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. [S.l.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-41157-8 
  • Shah, Mehtab Ali (1997). The Foreign Policy of Pakistan: Ethnic Impacts on Diplomacy, 1971–1994. [S.l.]: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-169-5 
  • Sharlach, Lisa (2000). «Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda». New Political Science. 1 (22): 89. doi:10.1080/713687893. It is also rape unto death, rape as massacre, rape to kill and to make the victims wish they were dead. It is rape as an instrument of forced exile, rape to make you leave your home and never want to go back. It is rape to be seen and heard and watched and told to others: rape as spectacle. It is rape to drive a wedge through a community, to shatter a society, to destroy a people. It is rape as genocide 
  • Shehabuddin, Elora (2010). «Bangladeshi civil society and Islamist politics». In: Ali Riaz, C. Christine Fair. Political Islam and Governance in Bangladesh. [S.l.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57673-4 
  • Sisson, Richard; Leo E. Rose (1992). War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh. [S.l.]: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07665-5 
  • Spencer, Philip (2012). Genocide Since 1945. [S.l.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415606349 
  • Tomsen, Peter (2011). The Wars of Afghanistan: Messianic Terrorism, Tribal Conflicts, and the Failures of Great Powers. [S.l.]: Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8 
  • Thompson, H R. (2007). Andrew Simpson, ed. Language and National Identity in Asia. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926748-4 

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