Língua munsee

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Munsee
Falado em: Canadá; Estados Unidos
Região: hoje em Ontario; antes em Nova Iorque, Nova Jérsie, Pennsylvania
Total de falantes: 7–8 (2009), dentre 400 Munsee (1991)
Família: Álgica
 Algonquina
  Algonquina Oriental
   Delaware
    Munsee
Códigos de língua
ISO 639-1: --
ISO 639-2: ---
ISO 639-3: umu
Limites entre línguas nativas Delaware, com o território Munsee sombreado na área mais ao norte, idem Unami no sul

Munsee (também chamada Munsee Delaware, Delaware, Ontario Delaware) é uma língua em vias de extinção do subgrupo [Línguas algonquinas orientais|Algonquino Oriental]], sendo uma das duas línguas delaware (ou Lanope) . É muito próxima da já extinta Unami Delaware. O Munsee já foi falado por nativos de áreas vizinhas à atual Nova Iorque, Estados Unidos, mais precisamente no oeste de Long Island, ilha Manhattan, Staten Island, Hudson Valley, terço setentrional de Nova Jérsie e nordeste da Pennsylvania.

Fonologia[editar | editar código-fonte]

Consoantes[editar | editar código-fonte]

Consoantes Munsee Delaware
Bilabial Dental Postalveolar Velar Glotal
Stop p t č [tʃ] k
Fricativa s š [ʃ] x h
Nasal m n
Lateral l
Semivogais (w) y [j] w

Vogais[editar | editar código-fonte]

Vogais Munsee
Frontal Central Posterior
Fechada i• [iː], i [ɪ] o• [oː], o [ʊ]
Média e• [ɛː], e [ɛ] ə
Aberta a• [aː], a [ʌ]

Ortografia[editar | editar código-fonte]

Comparação entre as ortografias “prática” e “linguística” do Munsee[1] com o uso do alfabeto latino:
Linguística Prática Português Linguística Prática Português Linguística Prática Português Linguística Prática Português
ampi•lamé•kwa•n ambiilaméekwaan agulha nkwə́ta•š ngwútaash seis wčéht wchéht músculo ăpánšəy ăpánzhuy madeira
nə̆wánsi•n nŭwánsiin Eu esqueci xwánsal xwánzal irmão mais velho dele ní•ša•š níishaash sete ntəší•nsi ndushíinzi eu ne chamo assim e assim
máske•kw máskeekw pântano, lagoa xá•š xáash oito ăpwá•n ăpwáan ”pão óhpwe•w óhpweew ele fuma
wə́sksəw wúsksuw ele é jovem ătíhte•w ătíhteew está maduro kíhkay kíhkay chefe máxkw máxkw urso
kwi•škwtó•nhe•w kwiishkwtóonheew ele sussurra áhpăpo•n áhpăpoon cadeira xwáškwšəš xwáshkwshush rato almiscarado pé•nkwan péenɡwan está seco

Notas[editar | editar código-fonte]

  1. Examples from O'Meara, John, 1996

Bibliografia[editar | editar código-fonte]

  • Blalock, Lucy, Bruce Pearson and James Rementer. 1994. The Delaware Language. Bartlesville, OK: Delaware Tribe of Indians.
  • Brinton, Daniel G., and Albert Seqaqkind Anthony. 1888. A Lenâpé-English dictionary. From an anonymous manuscript in the archives of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
  • Delaware Nation Council. 1992. Lunaapeew Dictionary. Basic Words. Part One. Moraviantown: Delaware Nation Council.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1974a. "Dutch Loanwords in Delaware." Herbert C. Kraft, ed. A Delaware Indian Symposium, pp. 153–160. Anthropological Series No. 4. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1977. "Some early examples of American Indian Pidgin English from New England." International Journal of American Linguistics 43: 37-41.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1979a. "Comparative Algonquian." Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun, eds, The languages of Native America, pp. 70–132. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-74624-5
  • Goddard, Ives. 1994. "The West-to-East Cline in Algonquian Dialetoology." William Cowan, ed., Papers of the 25th Algonquian Conference, pp. 187–211. Ottawa: Carleton University. ISSN 0831-5671
  • Michelson, Truman. 1922. [Field notes collected at Moraviantown and Six Nations]. Ms. 1635. National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
  • Pearson, Bruce. 1988. A Grammar of Delaware: Semantics, Morpho-Syntax, Lexicon, Fonologia. Dewey, OK: Touching Leaves Indian Crafts.
  • Zeisberger, David. 1887. Ebenezer N. Horsford, ed., Zeisberger's Indian Dictionary, English, German, Iroquois — the Onondaga, and Algonquin — the Delaware. Cambridge, MA: John Wilson.
  • Cohen, Patricia. 2010. Indian Tribes Go in Search of Their Lost Languages, New York Times, April 6, 2010, C1
  • Costa, David. J. 2007. "The dialetoology of Southern New England Algonquian. H.C. Wolfart, ed. Papers of the 38th Algonquian Conference, pp. 81-127. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. ISSN 0831-5671
  • Dahlstrom, Amy. 1995. "Motivation vs. Predictability in Algonquian gender.” H. C. Wolfart, ed., Papers of the Thirty-Third Algonquian Conference, 52-66. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. ISSN 0831-5671
  • Goddard, Ives. 1971. "The ethnohistorical implications of early Delaware linguistic materials." Man in the Northeast 1: 14-26.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1974. "The Delaware Language, Past and Present." Herbert C. Kraft, ed. A Delaware Indian Symposium, pp. 103–110. Anthropological Series No. 4. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1978. "Eastern Algonquian Languages." Bruce Trigger, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15, Northeast, pp. 70–77. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004575-4
  • Goddard, Ives. 1978a. "Delaware." Bruce Trigger, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15. Northeast, pp. 213–239. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004575-4
  • Goddard, Ives. 1979. Delaware Verbal Morphology. New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8240-9685-4
  • Goddard, Ives. 1982. "Munsee historical Fonologia." International Journal of American Linguistics 48: 16-48.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1990. "Aspects of the Topic Structure of Fox Narratives: Proximate Shifts and the Use of Overt and Inflectional NPs." International Journal of American Linguistics 56: 317-340
  • Goddard, Ives. 1996. "Introduction." Ives Goddard, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17. Languages, pp. 1–16. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9
  • Goddard, Ives. 2002. "Grammatical gender in Algonquian." H.C. Wolfart, ed., Papers of the Thirty-Third Algonquian Conference, pp. 195–231. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. ISSN 0831-5671
  • Kraft, Herbert. 1986. The Lenape: Archaeology, History, and Ethnography. Newark: New Jersey Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-911020-14-4
  • Kraft, Herbert. 1986a. "Settlement Patterns in the Upper Delaware Valley." Jay F. Custer, ed., Late Woodland Cultures of the Middle Atlantic Region, pp. 102–115. Newark: University of Delaware Press. ISBN 978-0-87413-285-4
  • McDowell, Adam. 2009. "More than words: Can Canada's dying languages be saved?" National Post. January 22, 2009. Retrieved May 29, 2009
  • Nichols, John D. and Earl Nyholm. 1995. A concise dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-2427-5
  • O'Meara, John. 1992. "Intransitive Verbs with Secondary Objects in Munsee Delaware." W. Cowan, ed., Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Algonquian Conference, pp. 322–333. Ottawa: Carleton University. ISSN 0831-5671
  • O'Meara, John. 1996. Delaware/English - English/Delaware Dictionary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-0670-7
  • Rudes, Blair. 1997. 1997. "Resurrecting Wampano (Quiripi) from the dead: Phonological preliminaries." Anthropological Linguistics 39: 1-59
  • Snow, Dean. 1978. "Late prehistory of the East coast." Bruce Trigger, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15. Northeast, pp. 58-. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004575-4
  • Williams, Lorraine E. 1995. "Indians and Europeans in the Delaware River Valley, 1620-1655." Carol E. Hoffecker, Richard Waldron, Lorraine E. Williams, and Barbara E. Benson, eds., New Sweden in America, pp. 112–120. Newark: University of Delaware Press. ISBN 978-0-87413-520-6

Ligações externas[editar | editar código-fonte]