Módulo:WikidataIB

Permanently protected module
Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.
Documentação do módulo[ver] [editar] [histórico] [purgar]

Este módulo foi projetado especificamente para implementar um mecanismo que move o controle de se os valores do Wikidata são usados em uma infobox do programador da predefinição no nível de design da infobox para o editor no nível de artigo. Ele só deve ser usado dentro de uma infobox, ou de dentro de uma predefinição.

Uso

O módulo provê essas chamadas especificamente para o uso em infoboxes no presente:

  1. getValue
  2. getPreferredValue chamada principal, usada para obter o valor(es) de uma dada propriedade
  3. getQualifierValue - dado: (1) uma propriedade; (2) seu valor; (3) o IDpropriedade do qualificador, retorna valores que igualam
  4. getValueByQual obtém o valor de uma propriedade que tem um qualificador com um dado valor de entidade
  5. getValueByLang obtém o valor de uma propriedade que tem um qualificador P407 ("linguagem de trabalho ou nome") cujo valor tem o código de linguagem dado
  6. getValueByRefSource obtém o valor de uma propriedade que tem uma referência "indicada em" (P248) cujo valor tem o ID-entidade indicado
  7. getPropOfProp se o(S) Valor (s) do prop1 são do tipo "wikibase-item" então ele retorna o(S) Valor (s) do prp2 de cada um desses itens wikibase
  8. getAwardCat se o item tem valores de P166 (prêmio recebido), em seguida, ele examina cada um dos prêmios para P2517 (categoria de destinatários do prêmio) e retorna a categoria correspondente, com o item P734 (nome de família) como chave de ordenação, ou nenhum tipo de chave se não existir nenhum nome de família
  9. getIntersectCat para cada valor do prop1 ele obtém a categoria principal do valor e então cada valor do prop2, então ele retorna todas as categorias que representam a interseção dessas propriedades
  10. getSumOfParts verifica a propriedade 'tem parte' (P527) para valores correspondentes a uma lista, se os valores correspondentes tiverem um qualificador 'quantidade' (P1114), essas quantidades são somadas e devolvidas (mas o zero devolve zero)
  11. getCoords - obtém as coordenadas e passa-as através do modelo:Coord

A chamada obsoleta getSourcedValue foi removida, pois agora é redundante para getValue que pode fazer o mesmo trabalho usando o parâmetro |onlysourced=true (que está definido por padrão). A chamada obsoleta getPreferredValue ainda é mantida, mas deve substituída por getValue|rank=best.

Existem também essas chamadas úteis:

  1. getLink se houver um link do site para um artigo no Wiki local, ele retorna um link para o artigo com a etiqueta Wikidata como o texto apresentado. Se não houver nenhum link do site, ele retorna o rótulo como texto simples. Se não houver nenhuma etiqueta na língua local, devolve o ID da entidade
  2. getAT (Article Title) Se houver um link do site para um artigo no Wiki local, ele retorna o link do site como texto simples, caso contrário nada
  3. getSiteLink obtém o link de texto simples para um artigo num determinado wiki
  4. getLabel devolve a etiqueta Wikidata para a língua local como texto simples. Se não houver nenhuma etiqueta na língua local, devolve o ID da entidade
  5. getAllLabels obtém o conjunto de legendas e formata-o para mostrar como wikitext
  6. labelorid devolve a legenda com toda o wikitexto removido, ou o ID da entidade se não houver legenda
  7. getDescription devolve a descrição do artigo para a entidade Wikidata se o parâmetro local for "Wikidata".
  8. getAllDescriptions obtém o conjunto de descrições e formata-o para mostrar como wikitext
  9. getAliases devolve os pseudónimos da entidade na língua actual ou dada
  10. getAllAliases obtém o conjunto de nomes alternativos e formata-o para mostrar como wikitext
  11. pageId devolve o id da página Wikidata ligada (ID de entidade, número Q) da página actual
  12. formatDate leva uma datetime do formato usual de mw.wikibase.entidade: formatpropertytyvalues e formata-o de acordo com os parâmetros df (formato de data) e a.C.
  13. formatNumber formata um número de acordo com o código da língua fornecida
  14. checkBlacklist devolve true se o campo "não" estiver na lista negra (isto é, permitido))
  15. emptyor devolve zero se o parâmetro for apenas pontuação, espaços em branco ou marcas de html, caso contrário devolve o argumento inalterado
  16. getLang devolve o código da língua MediaWiki ou o nome completo da língua do conteúdo actual
  17. getItemLangCode procura por país (P17), depois pela língua oficial desse país (P37), e devolve o código da língua (P424)
  18. findLanguage devolve (1) a língua indicada se for válida; ou (2) a língua definida do utilizador; ou (3) a língua do wiki actual
  19. getQid devolve (1) o ID da entidade, se for fornecido; ou (2) O ID da entidade do "tópico principal da categoria (P 301)"; ou (3) O ID da entidade associado à página actual; ou (4) nada
  20. followQid dada uma lista de propriedades, procura por cada propriedade por sua vez e devolve o ID da entidade do primeiro valor correspondente (opcionalmente, devolve todos os IDs da entidade que correspondem)
  21. getGlobe devolve o ID de entidade do globo usado em P625 (localização das coordenadas), ou zero se não existir um
  22. getCommonsLink retorna um dos seguintes, por ordem de preferência: o link do site Commons do item linked Wikidata; o sitelink Commons da principal categoria do tópico linked Wikidata item;
  23. siteID retorna a raiz do globalSiteID, por exemplo "en" para "enwiki", "enwikisource", "en-gb", etc.
  24. projID mesmo que siteID
  25. location pesquisa a partir da localização atual para cima ao longo da cadeia de locais de nível superior, retornando cada um até chegar a um país
  26. examine devolve um dump formatado da propriedade dada
  27. url2 toma um parâmetro que é um url apropriado e o formata para uso em um infobox; Aceita a sua própria saída como entrada
  28. getWebsite obtém o sítio Web Oficial (P856) e formata-o para utilização numa caixa de infocomment
  29. checkvalue procura através de uma propriedade para um dado ID de entidade como o seu valor e devolve esse ID de entidade, se for encontrado; caso contrário, nada
  30. checkValidity devolve se o primeiro parâmetro sem nome representa um ID de entidade válido
  31. showNoLinks mostra os títulos dos artigos que não devem ser ligados

Exemplo de chamadas:

{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |<PropertyID> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no> |noicon=<yes/no> |df=<dmy/mdy/y> |bc=<BC/BCE> |qual=<ALL/DATES/P999> |list=<ubl/hlist/prose> |linked=<yes/no> |<local parameter>}}
{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getCoords |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |<local parameter>}}
{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getQualifierValue |<PropertyID> |pval=<ID of target value for the property> |qual=<qualifier ID for that target value> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no>}}
{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValueByQual |<PropertyID> |qualID=<qualifier property ID to match> |qvalue=<QID of target value for the qualifier property> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no>}}
{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValueByLang |<PropertyID> |lang=<language code to match> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no>}}


Função getValue

Parameters to getValue

Nome Alias Função Padrão
(primeiro sem nome) 1 O ID da propriedade cujos valores são devolvidos. Necessário.
(segundo sem nome) 2 Um valor fornecido localmente que, se não estiver vazio, será devolvido em preferência ao valor no Wikidata. vazio
qid O número Q (ID da entidade) da entidade a que a propriedade pertence. Se não for fornecido ou vazio, é por omissão o item associado Wikidata da página actual-usamw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage(). Id do item para a página atual
eid Uma alternativa para qid. Excepto para eid, todos os parâmetros para o getValue tratam o zero e o texto vazio o mesmo. Então, ajuste |x= dá o mesmo resultado que omitir o parâmetro. No entanto, para fornecer alguma compatibilidade com outros módulos, utilizando
Disambig grey.svg Nota: Para eid, veja [[]].
devolve sempre um texto vazio, omitindo eid permite qid funcione normalmente.
Id do item para a página atual
rank [Insensível à capitalização] quando definido como best, devolve os valores preferidos se estiverem presentes, caso contrário devolve os valores normais. Quando definido como best devolve os valores preferidos. Quando configurado para normal, devolve os valores normais. Quando configurado para deprecated devolve valores desactualizados. Qualquer valor de parâmetro começando com "b" é "best"; começando com "p" é "prefered"; começando com "n" é "normal"; começando com "d" é obsoleto. Vários valores são permitidos: "p n d" retornaria todas as fileiras. O "best" sobrepõe-se às outras bandeiras. Outros valores são ignorados e se não for solicitada nenhuma classificação, preferidos e normais são devolvidos. preferred e normal
qual A lista separada de pontuação de IDs de propriedades de qualificadores que tem que ser devolvidos em parênteses depois da propriedade. Configuracao qual=ALL devolve todos os qualificadores. Configuração qual=DATES devolve data inicial (P580) e data final (P582) com separador de data. none
qualsonly qo Um booleano que permite a exibição de apenas o(s) qualificador (es), sem o valor da propriedade ou parênteses. Valores no, false e 0 são todos falsos; qualquer outra é true. false
qualsonly qo Um booleano que permite a exibição de apenas o(s) qualificador (es), sem o valor da propriedade ou parênteses. Valores no, false e 0 são todos falsos; qualquer outra é true. false
fetchwikidata fwd Lista de campos para buscar valores de. ALL buscas todos os campos. Um valor de NONE ou vazio ou omitir o parâmetro não busca campos. none
suppressfields spf Lista de campos que nunca irão aparecer. Isso mesmo forçará um valor local no campo a não exibir. none
name Nome do campo. Quando informa a info caixa, este é o nome que fetchwikidata e suppressfields vai reconhecer. Requirido se fetchwikidata ou suppressfields é específicado (excepto quando fetchwikidata=ALL). nil
onlysourced osd Um booleano que irá filtrar os valores do Wikidata que não são obtidos ou que só são obtidos na Wikipédia. Valores no, false e 0 são todos false; qualquer outro é true. true
df Formato de data: pode ser dma (dia antes de mês) ou mda (mês antes de dia) ou a (apenas ano). dmy
qdf Qualificadores de formato de data. Se omitido, revere para parâmetro padrão df, ou "y" ou "a" se df também é omitido. valor de df ou "y" ou "a"
bc Formato de sufixos a.C. ou d.C. (BC/BCE) para datas. BCE
plaindate pd Texto para modificar a formatação das datas. A configuração "true"/"yes"/"1" desactiva a adição de "circunstâncias de fontes" (P 1480) e quaisquer ligações. Definir "adj" faz o mesmo, mas usa a forma adjetiva da data. false
linked Um booleano que permite o link para uma página local através de seu link do site no Wikidata. Valores no, false e 0 são todos false; qualquer outro é true. true
displaytext dt Um texto que se sobrepõe ao texto apresentado de um item ligado, se não estiver vazio. empty
shortname sn Um booleano que permite o uso de Nome curto (p 1813) em vez de etiqueta para um item ligado. Valores no, false e 0 são todos false; quaquer outro é true. false
uselabel uselbl Um booleano que força a exibição do rótulo em vez do link do site desambiguado para um item ligado. As etiquetas são muito mais propensas ao vandalismo que os links do site. Valores no, false e 0 são todos false; qualquer outro é true. false
wdlinks wdl Um booleano que permite a exibição de links para Wikidata quando nenhum artigo local existe. Valores no, false e 0 são todos false; qualquer outro é true. false
unitabbr uabbr Um booleano que permite a exibição de abreviações de unidade para unidades comuns. Valores no, false e 0 são todos false; qualquer outro é true. false
convert conv Um booleano que permite a passagem de quantidades para Predefinição:Cvt. Valores no, false e 0são todos false; qualquer outro é true. false
showunits su Um booleano que permite a exibição de unidades para quantidades. Valores no, false e 0são todos false; qualquer outro é true. true
scale Uma cadeia de texto que configura a escala de formato das quantidades. Valores são: "a"=automático; "0"=sem escala; "3"=milhar; "6"=milhão; "9"=bilhãi; "12"=trilhão. 0
  • getValue pode também pegar um parâmetro |qid= que é o ID do Wikidata para o artigo. Isto não será normalmente usado, mas está disponível para teste, embora faça a chamada cara.
  • A propriedade a ser retornada é passada na primeira propriedade não nomeada.
  • O nome do campo que a função é chamada é passada no parâmetro |name=, que é primeiramente checado em uma blacklist de campos que não devem ser mostradas nunca, (i.e. a chamada retorna nil em todas as circunstâncias). Se o campo não está na blacklist, é então checado contra uma whitelist. Se o nome do campo concorda, a chamada retornará qualquer valor fornecido localmente se é fornecido como segundo parâmetro não nomeado, ou o valor do Wikidata caso contrário.
  • O nome é compulsório quando a blacklist ou a whitelist é usada, então o módulo retorna nil se não é fornecido.
  • A blacklist é passada no parâmetro |suppressfields=
  • A whitelist é passada no parâmetro |fetchwikidata=

A função getValue aceitará um parâmetro booleano |onlysourced= que irá suprimir retornos dos valores do Wikidata que estão sem fontes ou somente referenciados a Wikipédia. A ausência do parâmetro, um parâmetro |onlysourced vazio e uma string vazia ("") têm como default para verdadeiro (i.e. somente os valores referenciados são retornados). Os valores no, false e 0 são tratados como falsos (i.e. todos os valores são retornados); qualquer outro valor é verdadeiro (embora |onlysourced=yes seja recomendado para legibilidade).

A função getValue aceitará um parâmetro booleano noicon que suprimirá o ícone "edite no Wikidata" para quando o valor retornado for processado futuramente pela infobox (e.g. uma url). A ausência do parâmetro ou um parâmetro |noicon vazio default para falso (i.e. o parâmetro é adicionado). A string vazia ("") e os valores no, false e 0 são tratados como falsos; qualquer outro valor é verdadeiro (embora |noicon=true seja recomendado para legibilidade).

Em ordem de lidar com o requerimento para datas em my, dmy ou y, getValue aceita um parâmetro |df= que pode pegar valores "dmy", "my" ou "y" - default é "dmy".

Se um artigo exigir o sufixo a.C., getValue retornará a data com esse sufixo;

Em uma invocação do módulo para extrair datas, getValue aceita um parâmetro |idioma= que pode receber o valor "pt" para formatar a data de acordo com o português europeu (única diferença se dá nas datas envolvendo o primeiro dia do mês. Por exemplo: 1º de maio de 2017 (em português brasileiro) e 1 de maio de 2017 (em português europeu)).

  • A propriedade a ser retornada é passada na primeira propriedade não nomeada.

A função getValue aceitará um especificador de uso de unidade de medida (ao invés da unidade por extenso) na terceira propriedade não nomeada. A unidade de medida será exibida somente se o valor passado for unidade

Função getPreferredValue

A função getPreferredValue trabalha exatamente como getValue, tomando os mesmos parâmetros, mas se qualquer um dos valores para a propriedade tem um rank set preferido, ela retornará esses valores.

Exemplo

Obtendo o(s) nome(s) da criador (P170) de Corisca e Sátiro (Q29016906):

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P170 |fetchwikidata=ALL |qid=Q29016906 |onlysourced=no}}Artemisia Gentileschi, Diana Rosa, Massimo Stanzioni Edit this on Wikidata
  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getPreferredValue |P170 |fetchwikidata=ALL |qid=Q29016906 |onlysourced=no}}Artemisia Gentileschi Edit this on Wikidata

Função getSourcedValue

  • getSourcedValue trabalha exatamente como getValue, mas somente retorna valores que tenham referência a algo mais do que a Wikipedia. Não há garantias de fontes confiáveis, mas ajuda separar o joio do trigo.

Exemplo de getSourcedValue

De Richard Burton (Q151973):

Burton correntemente tem quatro valores para ocupação (P106) no Wikidata:

Usando getValue em Richard Burton:

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P106 |name=occupation |fetchwikidata=ALL}} -> ator de cinema, diarista, ator de teatro, ator, diretor de cinema Edit this on Wikidata

Usando getSourcedValue em Richard Burton:

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getSourcedValue |P106 |name=occupation |fetchwikidata=ALL}} ->

Função getCoords

  • getCoords pode também pegar um parâmetro |qid= que é o ID do Wikidata para o artigo. Isto não será normalmente usado, mas está disponível para testes, embora faça a chamada cara.
  • As coordenadas do Wikidata são passadas a Predefinição:Coord que retorna o display como se fosse chamado manualmente.
  • O nome do campo que a função é chamada é passada no parâmetro |name, que é primeiramente checado em uma blacklist de campos que não devem ser mostradas nunca, (i.e. a chamada retorna nil em todas as circunstâncias). Se o campo não está na blacklist, é então checado contra uma whitelist. Se o nome do campo concorda, a chamada retornará qualquer valor fornecido localmente se é fornecido como segundo parâmetro não nomeado, ou o valor do Wikidata caso contrário.
  • O nome é compulsório quando a blacklist ou a whitelist é usada, então o módulo retorna nil se não é fornecido.
  • A blacklist é passada no parâmetro |suppressfields=
  • A whitelist é passada no parâmetro |fetchwikidata=

Função getQualifierValue

O getQualifierValue é para usar quando queremos concordar o valor de um qualificador. Nós precisamos saber a propriedade e o valor da propriedade que a qualifica. Os parâmetros são:

  • A propriedade ID passada no parâmetro não nomeado (ou |1)
  • O valor alvo para esta propriedade em |pval
  • O ID qualificador para o valor alvo em |qual
  • O nome do campo onde é chamada para implementar "whitelisting" e "blacklisting" da propriedade nele
  • A lista de campos para concordância ("whitelist") em |fetchwikidata= - aceita |fetchwikidata=ALL para concordar todos os campos
  • Lista opcional de campos para não serem exibidos ("blacklist") em |suppressfields=
  • booleano opcional para especificar se apenas valores referenciados da propriedade são retornados (default para "no") em |onlysourced=
  • Item ID opcional para acesso arbitrário (chamada carísssima!) em |qid=

Exemplo de getQualifierValue

Em Telescópio do Polo Sul (Q1513315) existe uma propriedade evento notável (P793), que tem um valor construção civil (Q385378). Tem dois qualificadores, data inicial (P580) e data final (P582). Para obter a data de início:

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getQualifierValue |P793 |pval=Q385378 |qual=P580 |name=xyz |fetchwikidata=ALL }}

Em Telescópio do Polo Sul retorna:

  • novembro de 2006 Edit this on Wikidata

Função getLink

getLink retorna o rótulo para um Qid ligado a wiki para o artigo local (se o artigo existe).

Função getLabel

getLabel retorna o rótulo para uma Qid. Se o rótulo não existe, retorna o Qid. Note que este é o rótulo dado para a entrada no Wikidata na mesma linguagem da corrende Wikipédia, se o rótulo existe.

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLabel |Q29016906}} → Corisca e Sátiro
  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLabel |Q3621491}} → arqueólogo

Função getAT

getAT retorna o título do artigo para uma Qid. Se o título do artigo não existe, não retorna nada. Note que este é o título do artigo na corrente Wikipedia, se o interwiki existe na entrada Wikidata.

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getAT |Q29016906}}
  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getAT |Q3621491}}

Função formatDate*

formatDate aceita uma data no formato usual de mw.wikibase.entity:formatPropertyValues, como "1 de agosto de 30 a.C." como parâmetro 1 e o formata de acordo com os parâmetros df e bc.

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |formatDate | 1 de agosto de 30 | bc=BC |df=dmy}} → 1 de agosto de 30
  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |formatDate | 1 de agosto de 20 | bc=BCE |df=mdy}} → 1 de agosto de 30
  • df = "dmy" / "mdy" / "y" - default é "dmy"
  • bc = "BC" / "BCE" - default é "BCE"

* Não está funcionando normalmente

Adendo sobre o idioma de retorno

Por padrão, os rótulos retornados pelo módulo serão retornados por default na variante brasileira do português. Caso um editor deseje que o rótulo seja retornado em português europeu (essas são, infelizmente, as duas únicas variantes implementadas no Wikidata), ao utilizar qualquer uma das funções apresentadas, basta adicionar |idioma=pt ou |idioma=pt-ao (neste caso, os rótulos serão retornados em português europeu, e as datas serão retornadas no formato angolano) nos parâmetros da função.

Ver também

-- Version: 2021-02-06
-- Module to implement use of a blacklist and whitelist for infobox fields
-- Can take a named parameter |qid which is the Wikidata ID for the article
-- if not supplied, it will use the Wikidata ID associated with the current page.
-- Fields in blacklist are never to be displayed, i.e. module must return nil in all circumstances
-- Fields in whitelist return local value if it exists or the Wikidata value otherwise
-- The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in named parameter |name
-- The name is compulsory when blacklist or whitelist is used,
-- so the module returns nil if it is not supplied.
-- blacklist is passed in named parameter |suppressfields (or |spf)
-- whitelist is passed in named parameter |fetchwikidata (or |fwd)

local p = {}

local cdate -- initialise as nil and only load _complex_date function if needed
-- Module:Complex date is loaded lazily and has the following dependencies:
-- Module:Calendar
-- Module:ISOdate
-- Module:DateI18n
-- Module:No globals
-- Module:I18n/complex date
-- Module:Ordinal
-- Module:I18n/ordinal
-- Module:Yesno
-- Module:Formatnum
-- Module:Linguistic
--
-- The following, taken from https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Wikibase/DataModel#Dates_and_times,
-- is needed to use Module:Complex date which seemingly requires date precision as a string.
-- It would work better if only the authors of the mediawiki page could spell 'millennium'.
local dp = {
    [6] = "millennium",
    [7] = "century",
    [8] = "decade",
    [9] = "year",
    [10] = "month",
    [11] = "day",
}

local i18n =
{
     ["errors"] =
    {
        ["property-not-found"] = "Propriedade não encontrada.",
        ["entity-not-found"] = "Entidade Wikidata desconhecida.",
        ["unknown-claim-type"] = "Tipo claim com valor desconhecido.",
        ["unknown-entity-type"] = "Tipo entity com valor desconhecido.",
        ["qualifier-not-found"] = "Qualificador não encontrado.",
        ["site-not-found"] = "Projeto Wikimedia não encontrado.",
        ["unknown-datetime-format"] = "Formato datatempo desconhecido.",
        ["labels-not-found"] = "Etiqueta não econtrada.",
        ["descriptions-not-found"] = "Descrição não encontrada.",
        ["aliases-not-found"] = "Alias não encontrada.",
        ["dab-page"] = " (dab)",
    },
        ["editenowikidata"] = "Edite no Wikidata",
        ["filespace"] = "Ficheiro",
    ["months"] =
    {
        "janeiro", "fevereiro", "março", "abril", "maio", "junho", "julho", "agosto", "setembro", "outubro", "novembro", "dezembro"
    },
    ["century"] = "[[Século $1]]",
    ["BC"] = "a.C.",
    ["BCE"] = "a.C.",
    ["centurysemlink"] = "Século $1",
    ["decade"] = "[[Década de $1]]",
    ["decadesemlink"] = "década de $1",
    ["ordinal"] =
    {
        [1] = "st",
        [2] = "nd",
        [3] = "rd",
        ["default"] = "th"
    },
    ["filespace"] = "File",
    ["Unknown"] = "Desconhecido",
    ["NaN"] = "NaN",
    -- set the following to the name of a tracking category,
    -- e.g. "[[Category:Articles with missing Wikidata information]]", or "" to disable:
    ["missinginfocat"] = "[[Categoria:!Páginas que utilizam dados do Wikidata para traduzir]]",
    ["editonwikidata"] = "Edit this on Wikidata",
    ["latestdatequalifier"] = function (date) return "before " .. date end,
    -- some languages, e.g. Bosnian use a period as a suffix after each number in a date
    ["datenumbersuffix"] = "",
    ["list separator"] = ", ",
    ["multipliers"] = {
        [0]  = "",
        [3]  = " mil",
        [6]  = " milhão",
        [9]  = " bilhão",
        [12] = " trilhão",
    },
    ["month number"] =
    {
        [1] = "janeiro",
        [2] = "fevereiro",
        [3] = "março",
        [4] = "abril",
        [5] = "maio",
        [6] = "junho",
        [7] = "julho",
        [8] = "agosto",
        [9] = "setembro",
        [10] = "outubro",
        [11] = "novembro",
        [12] = "dezembro"
    },
}
-- This allows an internationisation module to override the above table
if 'en' ~= mw.getContentLanguage():getCode() then
    require("Module:I18n").loadI18n("Module:Wikidata/i18n", i18n)
end

-- This piece of html implements a collapsible container. Check the classes exist on your wiki.
local collapsediv = '<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%; overflow:auto;" data-expandtext="{{int:show}}" data-collapsetext="{{int:hide}}">'

-- Some items should not be linked.
-- Each wiki can create a list of those in Module:WikidataIB/nolinks
-- It should return a table called itemsindex, containing true for each item not to be linked
local donotlink = {}
local nolinks_exists, nolinks = pcall(mw.loadData, "Module:WikidataIB/nolinks")
if nolinks_exists then
    donotlink = nolinks.itemsindex
end

-- To satisfy Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Titles, certain types of items are italicised, and others are quoted.
-- The submodule [[Module:WikidataIB/titleformats]] lists the entity-ids used in 'instance of' (P31),
-- which allows this module to identify the values that should be formatted.
-- WikidataIB/titleformats exports a table p.formats, which is indexed by entity-id, and contains the value " or ''
local formats = {}
local titleformats_exists, titleformats = pcall(mw.loadData, "Module:WikidataIB/titleformats")
if titleformats_exists then
    formats = titleformats.formats
end

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Private functions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- makeOrdinal needs to be internationalised along with the above:
-- takes cardinal number as a numeric and returns the ordinal as a string
-- we need three exceptions in English for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 21st, .. 31st, etc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local makeOrdinal = function(cardinal)
    local ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal.default
    if cardinal % 10 == 1 then
        ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[1]
    elseif cardinal % 10 == 2 then
        ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[2]
    elseif cardinal % 10 == 3 then
        ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[3]
    end
    -- In English, 1, 21, 31, etc. use 'st', but 11, 111, etc. use 'th'
    -- similarly for 12 and 13, etc.
    if (cardinal % 100 == 11) or (cardinal % 100 == 12) or (cardinal % 100 == 13) then
        ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal.default
    end
    return tostring(cardinal) .. ordsuffix
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- findLang takes a "langcode" parameter if supplied and valid
-- otherwise it tries to create it from the user's set language ({{int:lang}})
-- failing that it uses the wiki's content language.
-- It returns a language object
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local findLang = function(langcode)
    local langobj
    langcode = mw.text.trim(langcode or "")
    if mw.language.isKnownLanguageTag(langcode) then
        langobj = mw.language.new( langcode )
    else
        langcode = mw.getCurrentFrame():preprocess( '{{int:lang}}' )
        if mw.language.isKnownLanguageTag(langcode) then
            langobj = mw.language.new( langcode )
        else
            langobj = mw.language.getContentLanguage()
        end
    end
    return langobj
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- _getItemLangCode takes a qid parameter (using the current page's qid if blank)
-- If the item for that qid has property country (P17) it looks at the first preferred value
-- If the country has an official language (P37), it looks at the first preferred value
-- If that official language has a language code (P424), it returns the first preferred value
-- Otherwise it returns nothing.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local _getItemLangCode = function(qid)
    qid = mw.text.trim(qid or ""):upper()
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then return end
    local prop17 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P17")[1]
    if not prop17 or prop17.mainsnak.snaktype ~= "value" then return end
    local qid17 = prop17.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    local prop37 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid17, "P37")[1]
    if not prop37 or prop37.mainsnak.snaktype ~= "value" then return end
    local qid37 = prop37.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    local prop424 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid37, "P424")[1]
    if not prop424 or prop424.mainsnak.snaktype ~= "value" then return end
    return prop424.mainsnak.datavalue.value
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- roundto takes a number (x)
-- and returns it rounded to (sf) significant figures
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local roundto = function(x, sf)
    if x == 0 then return 0 end
    local s = 1
    if x < 0 then
        x = -x
        s = -1
    end
    if sf < 1 then sf = 1 end
    local p = 10 ^ (math.floor(math.log10(x)) - sf + 1)
    x = math.floor(x / p + 0.5) * p * s
    -- if it's integral, cast to an integer:
    if x == math.floor(x) then x = math.floor(x) end
    return x
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- decimalToDMS takes a decimal degrees (x) with precision (p)
-- and returns degrees/minutes/seconds according to the precision
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local decimalToDMS = function(x, p)
    -- if p is not supplied, use a precision around 0.1 seconds
    if not tonumber(p) then p = 1e-4 end
    local d = math.floor(x)
    local ms = (x - d) * 60
    if p > 0.5 then -- precision is > 1/2 a degree
        if ms > 30 then d = d + 1 end
        ms = 0
    end
    local m = math.floor(ms)
    local s = (ms - m) * 60
    if p > 0.008 then -- precision is > 1/2 a minute
        if s > 30 then m = m +1 end
        s = 0
    elseif p > 0.00014 then -- precision is > 1/2 a second
        s = math.floor(s + 0.5)
    elseif p > 0.000014 then -- precision is > 1/20 second
        s = math.floor(10 * s + 0.5) / 10
    elseif p > 0.0000014 then -- precision is > 1/200 second
        s = math.floor(100 * s + 0.5) / 100
    else -- cap it at 3 dec places for now
        s = math.floor(1000 * s + 0.5) / 1000
    end
    return d, m, s
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- decimalPrecision takes a decimal (x) with precision (p)
-- and returns x rounded approximately to the given precision
-- precision should be between 1 and 1e-6, preferably a power of 10.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local decimalPrecision = function(x, p)
    local s = 1
    if x < 0 then
        x = -x
        s = -1
    end
    -- if p is not supplied, pick an arbitrary precision
    if not tonumber(p) then p = 1e-4
    elseif p > 1 then p = 1
    elseif p < 1e-6 then p = 1e-6
    else p = 10 ^ math.floor(math.log10(p))
    end
    x = math.floor(x / p + 0.5) * p * s
    -- if it's integral, cast to an integer:
    if  x == math.floor(x) then x = math.floor(x) end
    -- if it's less than 1e-4, it will be in exponent form, so return a string with 6dp
    -- 9e-5 becomes 0.000090
    if math.abs(x) < 1e-4 then x = string.format("%f", x) end
    return x
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- formatDate takes a datetime of the usual format from mw.wikibase.entity:formatPropertyValues
-- like "1 August 30 BCE" as parameter 1
-- and formats it according to the df (date format) and bc parameters
-- df = ["dmy" / "mdy" / "y"] default will be "dmy"
-- bc = ["BC" / "BCE"] default will be "BCE"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local format_Date = function(datetime, dateformat, bc)
    local datetime = datetime or "1 August 30 BCE" -- in case of nil value
    -- chop off multiple vales and/or any hours, mins, etc.
    -- keep anything before punctuation - we just want a single date:
    local dateval = string.match( datetime, "[%w ]+")

    local dateformat = string.lower(dateformat or "dmy") -- default to dmy

    local bc = string.upper(bc or "") -- can't use nil for bc
    -- we only want to accept two possibilities: BC or default to BCE
    if bc == "BC" then
        bc = "&nbsp;" .. i18n["BC"] -- prepend a non-breaking space.
    else
        bc = "&nbsp;" .. i18n["BCE"]
    end

    local postchrist = true -- start by assuming no BCE
    local dateparts = {}
    for word in string.gmatch(dateval, "%w+") do
        if word == "BCE" or word == "BC" then -- *** internationalise later ***
            postchrist = false
        else
            -- we'll keep the parts that are not 'BCE' in a table
            dateparts[#dateparts + 1] = word
        end
    end
    if postchrist then bc = "" end -- set AD dates to no suffix *** internationalise later ***

    local sep = "&nbsp;" -- separator is nbsp
    local fdate = table.concat(dateparts, sep) -- set formatted date to same order as input

    -- if we have day month year, check dateformat
    if #dateparts == 3 then
        if dateformat == "y" then
            fdate = dateparts[3]
        elseif dateformat == "mdy" then
            fdate = dateparts[2] .. sep .. dateparts[1] .. "," .. sep .. dateparts[3]
        end
    elseif #dateparts == 2 and dateformat == "y" then
        fdate = dateparts[2]
    end

    return fdate .. bc
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- dateFormat is the handler for properties that are of type "time"
-- It takes timestamp, precision (6 to 11 per mediawiki), dateformat (y/dmy/mdy), BC format (BC/BCE),
-- a plaindate switch (yes/no/adj) to en/disable "sourcing circumstances"/use adjectival form,
-- any qualifiers for the property, the language, and any adjective to use like 'before'.
-- It passes the date through the "complex date" function
-- and returns a string with the internatonalised date formatted according to preferences.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang(); cdate(); dp[]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local dateFormat = function(timestamp, dprec, df, bcf, pd, qualifiers, lang, adj, model)
    -- output formatting according to preferences (y/dmy/mdy/ymd)
    df = (df or ""):lower()
    -- if ymd is required, return the part of the timestamp in YYYY-MM-DD form
    -- but apply Year zero#Astronomers fix: 1 BC = 0000; 2 BC = -0001; etc.
    if df == "ymd" then
        if timestamp:sub(1,1) == "+" then
            return timestamp:sub(2,11)
        else
            local yr = tonumber(timestamp:sub(2,5)) - 1
            yr = ("000" .. yr):sub(-4)
            if yr ~= "0000" then yr = "-" .. yr end
            return yr .. timestamp:sub(6,11)
        end
    end
    -- A year can be stored like this: "+1872-00-00T00:00:00Z",
    -- which is processed here as if it were the day before "+1872-01-01T00:00:00Z",
    -- and that's the last day of 1871, so the year is wrong.
    -- So fix the month 0, day 0 timestamp to become 1 January instead:
    timestamp = timestamp:gsub("%-00%-00T", "-01-01T")
    -- just in case date precision is missing
    dprec = dprec or 11
    -- override more precise dates if required dateformat is year alone:
    if df == "y" and dprec > 9 then dprec = 9 end
    -- complex date only deals with precisions from 6 to 11, so clip range
    dprec = dprec>11 and 11 or dprec
    dprec = dprec<6 and 6 or dprec
    -- BC format is "BC" or "BCE"
    bcf = (bcf or ""):upper()
    -- plaindate only needs the first letter (y/n/a)
    pd = (pd or ""):sub(1,1):lower()
    if pd == "" or pd == "n" or pd == "f" or pd == "0" then pd = false end
    -- in case language isn't passed
    lang = lang or findLang().code
    -- set adj as empty if nil
    adj = adj or ""
    -- extract the day, month, year from the timestamp
    local bc = timestamp:sub(1, 1)=="-" and "BC" or ""
    local year, month, day = timestamp:match("[+-](%d*)-(%d*)-(%d*)T")
    local iso = tonumber(year) -- if year is missing, let it throw an error
    -- this will adjust the date format to be compatible with cdate
    -- possible formats are Y, YY, YYY0, YYYY, YYYY-MM, YYYY-MM-DD
    if dprec == 6 then iso = math.floor( (iso - 1) / 1000 ) + 1 end
    if dprec == 7 then iso = math.floor( (iso - 1) / 100 ) + 1 end
    if dprec == 8 then iso = math.floor( iso / 10 ) .. "0" end
    if dprec == 10 then iso = year .. "-" .. month end
    if dprec == 11 then iso = year .. "-" .. month .. "-" .. day end
    -- add "circa" (Q5727902) from "sourcing circumstances" (P1480)
    local sc = not pd and qualifiers and qualifiers.P1480
    if sc then
        for k1, v1 in pairs(sc) do
            if v1.datavalue and v1.datavalue.value.id == "Q5727902" then
                adj = "circa"
                break
            end
        end
    end
    -- deal with Julian dates:
    -- no point in saying that dates before 1582 are Julian - they are by default
    -- doesn't make sense for dates less precise than year
    -- we can suppress it by setting |plaindate, e.g. for use in constructing categories.
    local calendarmodel = ""
    if tonumber(year) > 1582
        and dprec > 8
        and not pd
        and model == "http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q1985786" then
        calendarmodel = "julian"
    end
    if not cdate then
        cdate = require("Module:Complex date")._complex_date
    end
    local fdate = cdate(calendarmodel, adj, tostring(iso), dp[dprec], bc, "", "", "", "", lang, 1)
    -- this may have QuickStatements info appended to it in a div, so remove that
    fdate = fdate:gsub(' <div style="display: none;">[^<]*</div>', '')
    -- it may also be returned wrapped in a microformat, so remove that
    fdate = fdate:gsub("<[^>]*>", "")
    -- there may be leading zeros that we should remove
    fdate = fdate:gsub("^0*", "")
    -- if a plain date is required, then remove any links (like BC linked)
    if pd then
        fdate = fdate:gsub("%[%[.*|", ""):gsub("]]", "")
    end
    -- if 'circa', use the abbreviated form *** internationalise later ***
    fdate = fdate:gsub('circa ', '<abbr title="circa">c.</abbr>&nbsp;')
    -- deal with BC/BCE
    if bcf == "BCE" then
        fdate = fdate:gsub('BC', 'BCE')
    end
    -- deal with mdy format
    if df == "mdy" then
        fdate = fdate:gsub("(%d+) (%w+) (%d+)", "%2 %1, %3")
    end
    -- deal with adjectival form *** internationalise later ***
    if pd == "a" then
        fdate = fdate:gsub(' century', '-century')
    end
    return fdate
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- parseParam takes a (string) parameter, e.g. from the list of frame arguments,
-- and makes "false", "no", and "0" into the (boolean) false
-- it makes the empty string and nil into the (boolean) value passed as default
-- allowing the parameter to be true or false by default.
-- It returns a boolean.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local parseParam = function(param, default)
    if type(param) == "boolean" then param = tostring(param) end
    if param and param ~= "" then
        param = param:lower()
        if (param == "false") or (param:sub(1,1) == "n") or (param == "0") then
            return false
        else
            return true
        end
    else
        return default
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- _getSitelink takes the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
-- It takes an optional parameter |wiki= to determine which wiki is to be checked for a sitelink
-- If the parameter is blank, then it uses the local wiki.
-- If there is a sitelink to an article available, it returns the plain text link to the article
-- If there is no sitelink, it returns nil.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local _getSitelink = function(qid, wiki)
    qid = (qid or ""):upper()
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then return nil end
    wiki = wiki or ""
    local sitelink
    if wiki == "" then
        sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(qid)
    else
        sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(qid, wiki)
    end
    return sitelink
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- _getCommonslink takes an optional qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
-- It returns one of the following in order of preference:
--     the Commons sitelink of the Wikidata entity - but not if onlycat=true and it's not a category;
--     the Commons sitelink of the topic's main category of the Wikidata entity;
--     the Commons category of the Wikidata entity - unless fallback=false.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getSitelink(); parseParam()
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local _getCommonslink = function(qid, onlycat, fallback)
    qid = (qid or ""):upper()
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then return nil end
    onlycat = parseParam(onlycat, false)
    if fallback == "" then fallback = nil end
    local sitelink = _getSitelink(qid, "commonswiki")
    if onlycat and sitelink and sitelink:sub(1,9) ~= "Category:" then sitelink = nil end
    if not sitelink then
        -- check for topic's main category
        local prop910 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P910")[1]
        if prop910 then
            local tmcid = prop910.mainsnak.datavalue and prop910.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
            sitelink = _getSitelink(tmcid, "commonswiki")
        end
        if not sitelink then
            -- check for list's main category
            local prop1754 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P1754")[1]
            if prop1754 then
                local tmcid = prop1754.mainsnak.datavalue and prop1754.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
                sitelink = _getSitelink(tmcid, "commonswiki")
            end
        end
    end
    if not sitelink and fallback then
        -- check for Commons category (string value)
        local prop373 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P373")[1]
        if prop373 then
            sitelink = prop373.mainsnak.datavalue and prop373.mainsnak.datavalue.value
            if sitelink then sitelink = "Category:" .. sitelink end
        end
    end
    return sitelink
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- The label in a Wikidata item is subject to vulnerabilities
-- that an attacker might try to exploit.
-- It needs to be 'sanitised' by removing any wikitext before use.
-- If it doesn't exist, return the id for the item
-- a second (boolean) value is also returned, value is true when the label exists
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local labelOrId = function(id, lang)
    if lang == "default" then lang = findLang().code end
    local label
    if lang then
        label = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(id, lang)
    else
        label = mw.wikibase.getLabel(id)
        --label = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(id,'pt-br') or mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(id,'pt') or ""
    end
    if label then
        return mw.text.nowiki(label), true
    else
        return id, false
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- linkedItem takes an entity-id and returns a string, linked if possible.
-- This is the handler for "wikibase-item". Preferences:
-- 1. Display linked disambiguated sitelink if it exists
-- 2. Display linked label if it is a redirect
-- 3. TBA: Display an inter-language link for the label if it exists other than in default language
-- 4. Display unlinked label if it exists
-- 5. Display entity-id for now to indicate a label could be provided
-- dtxt is text to be used instead of label, or nil.
-- shortname is boolean switch to use P1813 (short name) instead of label if true.
-- lang is the current language code.
-- uselbl is boolean switch to force display of the label instead of the sitelink (default: false)
-- linkredir is boolean switch to allow linking to a redirect (default: false)
-- formatvalue is boolean switch to allow formatting as italics or quoted (default: false)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: labelOrId(); donotlink[]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local linkedItem = function(id, args)
    local lprefix = (args.lp or args.lprefix or args.linkprefix or ""):gsub('"', '') -- toughen against nil values passed
    local lpostfix = (args.lpostfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    local prefix = (args.prefix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    local postfix = (args.postfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    local dtxt = args.dtxt
    local shortname = args.shortname
    local lang = args.lang or "pt-br" -- fallback to default if missing
    local gender = args.gender or ""
    local uselbl = args.uselabel or args.uselbl
    uselbl = parseParam(uselbl, false)
    local linkredir = args.linkredir
    linkredir = parseParam(linkredir, false)
    local formatvalue = args.formatvalue or args.fv
    formatvalue = parseParam(formatvalue, false)
    -- see if item might need italics or quotes
    local fmt = ""
   
    if next(formats) and formatvalue then
        for k, v in ipairs( mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P31") ) do
            if v.mainsnak.datavalue and formats[v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id] then
                fmt = formats[v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id]
                break -- pick the first match
            end
        end
    end
    local disp
    local sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(id)
    local label, islabel
    if dtxt then
        label, islabel = dtxt, true
    elseif shortname then
        -- see if there is a shortname in our language, and set label to it
        for k, v in ipairs( mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P1813") ) do
            if v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == lang then
                label, islabel = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text, true
                break
            end -- test for language match
        end -- loop through values of short name
        -- if we have no label set, then there was no shortname available
        if not islabel then
            label, islabel = labelOrId(id)
            shortname = false
        end
    elseif gender == "f" or gender == "F" then
        -- see if there is a feminine in our language, and set label to it
        for k, v in ipairs( mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P2521") ) do
            if v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == lang then
               label, islabel = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text, true
               break
            end -- test for language match
        end -- loop through values of gender
       -- if we have no label set, then there was no feminine name available
        if not islabel then
           label, islabel = labelOrId(id)
           gender = false
        end
    else
        label, islabel = labelOrId(id)
        gender = false
    end
    if mw.site.siteName ~= "Wikimedia Commons" then
        if sitelink then
            if not (dtxt or shortname or gender) then
                -- if sitelink and label are the same except for case, no need to process further
                if sitelink:lower() ~= label:lower() then
                    -- strip any namespace or dab from the sitelink
                    local pos = sitelink:find(":") or 0
                    local slink = sitelink
                    if pos > 0 then
                        local pfx = sitelink:sub(1,pos-1)
                        if mw.site.namespaces[pfx] then -- that prefix is a valid namespace, so remove it
                            slink = sitelink:sub(pos+1)
                        end
                    end
                    -- remove stuff after commas or inside parentheses - ie. dabs
                    slink = slink:gsub("%s%(.+%)$", ""):gsub(",.+$", "")
                    -- if uselbl is false, use sitelink instead of label
                    if not uselbl then
                        --  use slink as display, preserving label case - find("^%u") is true for 1st char uppercase
                        if label:find("^%u") then
                            label = slink:gsub("^(%l)", string.upper)
                        else
                            label = slink:gsub("^(%u)", string.lower)
                        end
                    end
                end
            end
            if donotlink[label] then
                disp = prefix .. fmt .. label .. fmt .. postfix
            else
                disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. sitelink .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. fmt .. label .. fmt .. postfix .. "]]"
            end
        elseif islabel then
            -- no sitelink, label exists, so check if a redirect with that title exists, if linkredir is true
            -- display plain label by default
            disp = prefix .. fmt .. label .. fmt .. postfix
            if linkredir then
                local artitle = mw.title.new(label, 0) -- only nil if label has invalid chars
                if not donotlink[label] and artitle and artitle.redirectTarget then
                    -- there's a redirect with the same title as the label, so let's link to that
                    disp = "[[".. lprefix .. label .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. fmt .. label .. fmt .. postfix .. "]]"
                end
            end -- test if article title exists as redirect on current Wiki
        else
            -- no sitelink and no label, so return whatever was returned from labelOrId for now
            -- add tracking category [[Category:Articles with missing Wikidata information]]
            -- for enwiki, just return the tracking category
--            if mw.wikibase.getGlobalSiteId() == "ptwiki" then
--                disp = i18n.missinginfocat
--            else
--                disp = prefix .. label or '' .. postfix .. i18n.missinginfocat
--            end
        end
    else
        local ccat = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P373")[1]
        if ccat and ccat.mainsnak.datavalue then
            ccat = ccat.mainsnak.datavalue.value
            disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. "Category:" .. ccat .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. label .. postfix .. "]]"
        elseif sitelink then
            -- this asumes that if a sitelink exists, then a label also exists
            disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. sitelink .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. label .. postfix .. "]]"
        else
            -- no sitelink and no Commons cat, so return label from labelOrId for now
            disp = prefix .. label .. postfix
        end
    end
    return disp
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- sourced takes a table representing a statement that may or may not have references
-- it looks for a reference sourced to something not containing the word "wikipedia"
-- it returns a boolean = true if it finds a sourced reference.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local sourced = function(claim)
    if claim.references then
        for kr, vr in pairs(claim.references) do
            local ref = mw.wikibase.renderSnaks(vr.snaks)
            if not ref:find("Wiki") then
                return true
            end
        end
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- setRanks takes a flag (parameter passed) that requests the values to return
-- "b[est]" returns preferred if available, otherwise normal
-- "p[referred]" returns preferred
-- "n[ormal]" returns normal
-- "d[eprecated]" returns deprecated
-- multiple values are allowed, e.g. "preferred normal" (which is the default)
-- "best" will override the other flags, and set p and n
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local setRanks = function(rank)
    rank = (rank or ""):lower()
    -- if nothing passed, return preferred and normal
    -- if rank == "" then rank = "p n" end
    local ranks = {}
    for w in string.gmatch(rank, "%a+") do
        w = w:sub(1,1)
        if w == "b" or w == "p" or w == "n" or w == "d" then
            ranks[w] = true
        end
    end
    -- check if "best" is requested or no ranks requested; and if so, set preferred and normal
    if ranks.b or not next(ranks) then
        ranks.p = true
        ranks.n = true
    end
    return ranks
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- parseInput processes the Q-id , the blacklist and the whitelist
-- if an input parameter is supplied, it returns that and ends the call.
-- it returns (1) either the qid or nil indicating whether or not the call should continue
-- and (2) a table containing all of the statements for the propertyID and relevant Qid
-- if "best" ranks are requested, it returns those instead of all non-deprecated ranks
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local parseInput = function(frame, input_parm, property_id)
    -- There may be a local parameter supplied, if it's blank, set it to nil
    input_parm = mw.text.trim(input_parm or "")
    if input_parm == "" then input_parm = nil end

    -- return nil if Wikidata is not available
    if not mw.wikibase then return false, input_parm end

    local args = frame.args

    -- can take a named parameter |qid which is the Wikidata ID for the article.
    -- if it's not supplied, use the id for the current page
    local qid = args.qid or ""
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    -- if there's no Wikidata item for the current page return nil
    if not qid then return false, input_parm end

    -- The blacklist is passed in named parameter |suppressfields
    local blacklist = args.suppressfields or args.spf or ""

    -- The whitelist is passed in named parameter |fetchwikidata
    local whitelist = args.fetchwikidata or args.fwd or ""
    if whitelist == "" then whitelist = "NONE" end

    -- The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in named parameter |name
    local fieldname = args.name or ""

    if blacklist ~= "" then
        -- The name is compulsory when blacklist is used, so return nil if it is not supplied
        if fieldname == "" then return false, nil end
        -- If this field is on the blacklist, then return nil
        if blacklist:find(fieldname) then return false, nil end
    end

    -- If we got this far then we're not on the blacklist
    -- The blacklist overrides any locally supplied parameter as well
    -- If a non-blank input parameter was supplied return it
    if input_parm then return false, input_parm end

    -- We can filter out non-valid properties
    if property_id:sub(1,1):upper() ~="P" or property_id == "P0" then return false, nil end

    -- Otherwise see if this field is on the whitelist:
    -- needs a bit more logic because find will return its second value = 0 if fieldname is ""
    -- but nil if fieldname not found on whitelist
    local _, found = whitelist:find(fieldname)
    found = ((found or 0) > 0)
    if whitelist ~= 'ALL' and (whitelist:upper() == "NONE" or not found) then
        return false, nil
    end

    -- See what's on Wikidata (the call always returns a table, but it may be empty):
    local props = {}
    if args.reqranks.b then
        props = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, property_id)
    else
        props = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, property_id)
    end
    if props[1] then
        return qid, props
    end
    -- no property on Wikidata
    return false, nil
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- createicon assembles the "Edit at Wikidata" pen icon.
-- It returns a wikitext string inside a span class="penicon"
-- if entityID is nil or empty, the ID associated with current page is used
-- langcode and propertyID may be nil or empty
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: i18n[];
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local createicon = function(langcode, entityID, propertyID)
    langcode = langcode or ""
    if not entityID or entityID == "" then entityID= mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    propertyID = propertyID or ""
    local icon = "&nbsp;<span class='penicon autoconfirmed-show'>[["
    -- "&nbsp;<span data-bridge-edit-flow='overwrite' class='penicon'>[[" -> enable Wikidata Bridge
    .. i18n["filespace"]
    .. ":OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg |frameless |text-top |10px |alt="
    .. i18n["editonwikidata"]
    .. "|link=https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/" .. entityID
    if langcode ~= "" then icon = icon .. "?uselang=" .. langcode end
    if propertyID ~= "" then icon = icon .. "#" .. propertyID end
    icon = icon .. "|" .. i18n["editonwikidata"] .. "]]</span>"
    return icon
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- assembleoutput takes the sequence table containing the property values
-- and formats it according to switches given. It returns a string or nil.
-- It uses the entityID (and optionally propertyID) to create a link in the pen icon.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local assembleoutput = function(out, args, entityID, propertyID)

    -- sorted is a boolean passed to enable sorting of the values returned
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    -- if "false" or "no" or "0" is passed set it false
    local sorted = parseParam(args.sorted, false)

    -- noicon is a boolean passed to suppress the trailing "edit at Wikidata" icon
    -- for use when the value is processed further by the infobox
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    -- if "false" or "no" or "0" is passed set it false
    local noic = parseParam(args.noicon, false)

    -- list is the name of a template that a list of multiple values is passed through
    -- examples include "hlist" and "ubl"
    -- setting it to "prose" produces something like "1, 2, 3, and 4"
    local list = args.list or ""

    -- sep is a string that is used to separate multiple returned values
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it to the default
    -- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    -- e.g. |sep=" - "
    local sepdefault = i18n["list separator"]
    local separator = args.sep or ""
    separator = string.gsub(separator, '"', '')
    if separator == "" then
        separator = sepdefault
    end

    -- collapse is a number that determines the maximum number of returned values
    -- before the output is collapsed.
    -- Zero or not a number result in no collapsing (default becomes 0).
    local collapse = tonumber(args.collapse) or 0

    -- replacetext (rt) is a string that is returned instead of any non-empty Wikidata value
    -- this is useful for tracking and debugging
    local replacetext = mw.text.trim(args.rt or args.replacetext or "")

    -- if there's anything to return, then return a list
    -- comma-separated by default, but may be specified by the sep parameter
    -- optionally specify a hlist or ubl or a prose list, etc.
    local strout
    if #out > 0 then
        if sorted then table.sort(out) end
        -- if there's something to display and a pen icon is wanted, add it the end of the last value
        local hasdisplay = false
        for i, v in ipairs(out) do
            if v ~= i18n.missinginfocat then
                hasdisplay = true
                break
            end
        end
        if not noic and hasdisplay then
            out[#out] = out[#out] .. createicon(args.langobj.code, entityID, propertyID)
        end
        if list == "" then
            strout = table.concat(out, separator)
        elseif list:lower() == "prose" then
            strout = mw.text.listToText( out )
        else
            strout = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = list, args = out}
        end
        if collapse >0 and #out > collapse then
            strout = collapsediv .. strout .. "</div>"
        end
    else
        strout = nil -- no items had valid reference
    end
    if replacetext ~= "" and strout then strout = replacetext end
    return strout
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- rendersnak takes a table (propval) containing the information stored on one property value
-- and returns the value as a string and its language if monolingual text.
-- It handles data of type:
--        wikibase-item
--        time
--        string, url, commonsMedia, external-id
--        quantity
--        globe-coordinate
--        monolingualtext
-- It also requires linked, the link/pre/postfixes, uabbr, and the arguments passed from frame.
-- The optional filter parameter allows quantities to be be filtered by unit Qid.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam(); labelOrId(); i18n[]; dateFormat();
-- roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS(); linkedItem();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local rendersnak = function(propval, args, linked, lpre, lpost, pre, post, uabbr, filter)
    lpre = lpre or ""
    lpost = lpost or ""
    pre = pre or ""
    post = post or ""
    args.lang = args.lang or findLang().code
    -- allow values to display a fixed text instead of label
    local dtxt = args.displaytext or args.dt
    if dtxt == "" then dtxt = nil end
    -- switch to use display of short name (P1813) instead of label
    local shortname = args.shortname or args.sn
    shortname = parseParam(shortname, false)
    local snak = propval.mainsnak or propval
    local dtype = snak.datatype
    local dv = snak.datavalue
    dv = dv and dv.value
    -- value and monolingual text language code returned
    local val, mlt
    if propval.rank and not args.reqranks[propval.rank:sub(1, 1)] then
        -- val is nil: value has a rank that isn't requested
        ------------------------------------
    elseif snak.snaktype == "somevalue" then -- value is unknown
        val = i18n["Unknown"]
        ------------------------------------
    elseif snak.snaktype == "novalue" then -- value is none
        -- val = "No value" -- don't return anything
        ------------------------------------
    elseif dtype == "wikibase-item" then -- data type is a wikibase item:
        -- it's wiki-linked value, so output as link if enabled and possible
        local qnumber = dv.id
        if linked or args.gender ~= "" then
            val = linkedItem(qnumber, args)
        else -- no link wanted so check for display-text, otherwise test for lang code
            local label, islabel
            if dtxt then
                label = dtxt
            else
            if not label then
                    label, islabel = labelOrId(qnumber)
                end
                local langlabel = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(qnumber, args.lang)
                if langlabel then
                    label = mw.text.nowiki( langlabel )
                end
            end
            val = pre .. label .. post
        end -- test for link required
        ------------------------------------
    elseif dtype == "time" then -- data type is time:
        -- time is in timestamp format
        -- date precision is integer per mediawiki
        -- output formatting according to preferences (y/dmy/mdy)
        -- BC format as BC or BCE
        -- plaindate is passed to disable looking for "sourcing cirumstances"
        -- or to set the adjectival form
        -- qualifiers (if any) is a nested table or nil
        -- lang is given, or user language, or site language
        --
        -- Here we can check whether args.df has a value
        -- If not, use code from Module:Sandbox/RexxS/Getdateformat to set it from templates like {{Use mdy dates}}
        val = dateFormat(dv.time, dv.precision, args.df, args.bc, args.pd, propval.qualifiers, args.lang, "", dv.calendarmodel)
        ------------------------------------
    -- data types which are strings:
    elseif dtype == "commonsMedia" or dtype == "external-id" or dtype == "string" or dtype == "url" then
        -- commonsMedia or external-id or string or url
        -- all have mainsnak.datavalue.value as string
        if (lpre == "" or lpre == ":") and lpost == "" then
            -- don't link if no linkpre/postfix or linkprefix is just ":"
            val = pre .. dv .. post
        elseif dtype == "external-id" then
            val = "[" .. lpre .. dv .. lpost .. " " .. pre .. dv .. post .. "]"
        else
            val = "[[" .. lpre .. dv .. lpost .. "|" .. pre .. dv .. post .. "]]"
        end -- check for link requested (i.e. either linkprefix or linkpostfix exists)
        ------------------------------------
    -- data types which are quantities:
    elseif dtype == "quantity" then
        -- quantities have mainsnak.datavalue.value.amount and mainsnak.datavalue.value.unit
        -- the unit is of the form http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q829073
        --
        -- implement a switch to turn on/off numerical formatting later
        local fnum = true
        --
        -- a switch to turn on/off conversions - only for en-wiki
        local conv = parseParam(args.conv or args.convert, false)
        -- if we have conversions, we won't have formatted numbers or scales
        if conv then
            uabbr = true
            fnum = false
            args.scale = "0"
        end
        --
        -- a switch to turn on/off showing units, default is true
        local showunits = parseParam(args.su or args.showunits, true)
        --
        -- convert amount to a number
        local amount = tonumber(dv.amount) or i18n["NaN"]
        --
        -- scale factor for millions, billions, etc.
        local sc = tostring(args.scale or ""):sub(1,1):lower()
        local scale
        if sc == "a" then
            -- automatic scaling
            if amount > 1e15 then
                scale = 12
            elseif amount > 1e12 then
                scale = 9
            elseif amount > 1e9 then
                scale = 6
            elseif amount > 1e6 then
                scale = 3
            else
                scale = 0
            end
        else
            scale = tonumber(args.scale) or 0
            if scale < 0 or scale > 12 then scale = 0 end
            scale = math.floor(scale/3) * 3
        end
        local factor = 10^scale
        amount = amount / factor
        -- ranges:
        local range = ""
        -- check if upper and/or lower bounds are given and significant
        local upb = tonumber(dv.upperBound)
        local lowb = tonumber(dv.lowerBound)
        if upb and lowb then
            -- differences rounded to 2 sig fig:
            local posdif = roundto(upb - amount, 2) / factor
            local negdif = roundto(amount - lowb, 2) / factor
            upb, lowb = amount + posdif, amount - negdif
            -- round scaled numbers to integers or 4 sig fig
            if (scale > 0 or sc == "a") then
                if amount < 1e4 then
                    amount = roundto(amount, 4)
                else
                    amount = math.floor(amount + 0.5)
                end
            end
            if fnum then amount = args.langobj:formatNum( amount ) end
            if posdif ~= negdif then
                -- non-symmetrical
                range = " +" .. posdif .. " -" .. negdif
            elseif posdif ~= 0 then
                -- symmetrical and non-zero
                range = " ±" .. posdif
            else
                -- otherwise range is zero, so leave it as ""
            end
        else
            -- round scaled numbers to integers or 4 sig fig
            if (scale > 0 or sc == "a") then
                if amount < 1e4 then
                    amount = roundto(amount, 4)
                else
                    amount = math.floor(amount + 0.5)
                end
            end
            if fnum then amount = args.langobj:formatNum( amount ) end
        end
        -- unit names and symbols:
        -- extract the qid in the form 'Qnnn' from the value.unit url
        -- and then fetch the label from that - or symbol if unitabbr is true
        local unit = ""
        local usep = ""
        local usym = ""
        local unitqid = string.match( dv.unit, "(Q%d+)" )
        if filter and unitqid ~= filter then return nil end
        if unitqid and showunits then
            local uname = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(unitqid, args.lang) or ""
            if uname ~= "" then usep, unit = " ", uname end
            if uabbr then
                -- see if there's a unit symbol (P5061)
                local unitsymbols = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(unitqid, "P5061")
                -- construct fallback table, add local lang and multiple languages
                local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( args.lang )
                table.insert( fbtbl, 1, args.lang )
                table.insert( fbtbl, 1, "mul" )
                local found = false
                for idx1, us in ipairs(unitsymbols) do
                    for idx2, fblang in ipairs(fbtbl) do
                        if us.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == fblang then
                            usym = us.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text
                            found = true
                            break
                        end
                    if found then break end
                    end -- loop through fallback table
                end -- loop through values of P5061
                if found then usep, unit = "&nbsp;", usym end
            end
        end
        -- format display:
        if conv then
            if range == "" then
                val = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "cvt", args = {amount, unit}}
            else
                val = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "cvt", args = {lowb, "to", upb, unit}}
            end
        elseif unit == "$" or unit == "£" then
            val = unit .. amount .. range .. i18n.multipliers[scale]
        else
            val = amount .. range .. i18n.multipliers[scale] .. usep .. unit
        end
        ------------------------------------
    -- datatypes which are global coordinates:
    elseif dtype == "globe-coordinate" then
        -- 'display' parameter defaults to "inline, title" *** unused for now ***
        -- local disp = args.display or ""
        -- if disp == "" then disp = "inline, title" end
        --
        -- format parameter switches from deg/min/sec to decimal degrees
        -- default is deg/min/sec -- decimal degrees needs |format = dec
        local form = (args.format or ""):lower():sub(1,3)
        if form ~= "dec" then form = "dms" end -- not needed for now
        --
        -- show parameter allows just the latitude, or just the longitude, or both
        -- to be returned as a signed decimal, ignoring the format parameter.
        local show = (args.show or ""):lower()
        if show ~= "longlat" then show = show:sub(1,3) end
        --
        local lat, long, prec = dv.latitude, dv.longitude, dv.precision
        if show == "lat" then
            val = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
        elseif show == "lon" then
            val = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
        elseif show == "longlat" then
            val = decimalPrecision(long, prec) .. ", " .. decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
        else
            local ns = "N"
            local ew = "E"
            if lat < 0 then
                ns = "S"
                lat = - lat
            end
            if long < 0 then
                ew = "W"
                long = - long
            end
            if form == "dec" then
                lat = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
                long = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
                val = lat .. "°" .. ns .. " " .. long ..  "°" .. ew
            else
                local latdeg, latmin, latsec = decimalToDMS(lat, prec)
                local longdeg, longmin, longsec = decimalToDMS(long, prec)

                if latsec == 0 and longsec == 0 then
                    if latmin == 0 and longmin == 0 then
                        val = latdeg .. "°" .. ns .. " " .. longdeg ..  "°" .. ew
                    else
                        val = latdeg .. "°" .. latmin .. "&#39;" .. ns .. ", "
                        val = val .. longdeg .. "°".. longmin .. "&#39;" .. ew
                    end
                else
                    val = latdeg .. "°" .. latmin .. "&#39;" .. latsec .. "&#34;" .. ns .. ",&#32; "
                    val = val .. longdeg .. "°" .. longmin .. "&#39;" .. longsec .. "&#34;" .. ew
                end
            end
        end
        ------------------------------------
    elseif dtype == "monolingualtext" then -- data type is Monolingual text:
        -- has mainsnak.datavalue.value as a table containing language/text pairs
        -- collect all the values in 'out' and languages in 'mlt' and process them later
        val = pre .. dv.text .. post
        mlt = dv.language
        ------------------------------------
    else
        -- some other data type so write a specific handler
        val = "unknown data type: " .. dtype
    end -- of datatype/unknown value/sourced check
    return val, mlt
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- propertyvalueandquals takes a property object, the arguments passed from frame,
-- and a qualifier propertyID.
-- It returns a sequence (table) of values representing the values of that property
-- and qualifiers that match the qualifierID if supplied.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam(); sourced(); labelOrId(); i18n.latestdatequalifier(); format_Date();
-- makeOrdinal(); roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS(); assembleoutput();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local function propertyvalueandquals(objproperty, args, qualID)
    -- needs this style of declaration because it's re-entrant

    -- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return only values sourced to other than Wikipedia
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
    local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)

    -- linked is a a boolean that enables the link to a local page via sitelink
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
    local linked = parseParam(args.linked, true)

    -- prefix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
    -- this is prefixed to each value
    -- useful when when multiple values are returned
    -- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    local prefix = (args.prefix or ""):gsub('"', '')

    -- postfix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
    -- this is postfixed to each value
    -- useful when when multiple values are returned
    -- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    local postfix = (args.postfix or ""):gsub('"', '')

    -- linkprefix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
    -- this creates a link and is then prefixed to each value
    -- useful when when multiple values are returned and indirect links are needed
    -- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    local lprefix = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')

    -- linkpostfix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
    -- this is postfixed to each value when linking is enabled with lprefix
    -- useful when when multiple values are returned
    -- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    local lpostfix = (args.linkpostfix or ""):gsub('"', '')

    -- wdlinks is a boolean passed to enable links to Wikidata when no article exists
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    local wdl = parseParam(args.wdlinks or args.wdl, false)

    -- unitabbr is a boolean passed to enable unit abbreviations for common units
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    local uabbr = parseParam(args.unitabbr or args.uabbr, false)

    -- qualsonly is a boolean passed to return just the qualifiers
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    local qualsonly = parseParam(args.qualsonly or args.qo, false)

    -- maxvals is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a number
    -- this determines how many items may be returned when multiple values are available
    -- setting it = 1 is useful where the returned string is used within another call, e.g. image
    local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0

    -- pd (plain date) is a string: yes/true/1 | no/false/0 | adj
    -- to disable/enable "sourcing cirumstances" or use adjectival form for the plain date
    local pd = args.plaindate or args.pd or "no"
    args.pd = pd

    -- allow qualifiers to have a different date format; default to year unless qualsonly is set
    args.qdf = args.qdf or args.qualifierdateformat or args.df or (not qualsonly and "y")

    local lang = args.lang or findLang().code

    -- qualID is a string list of wanted qualifiers or "ALL"
    qualID = qualID or ""
    -- capitalise list of wanted qualifiers and substitute "DATES"
    qualID = qualID:upper():gsub("DATES", "P580, P582")
    local allflag = (qualID == "ALL")
    -- create table of wanted qualifiers as key
    local qwanted = {}
    -- create sequence of wanted qualifiers
    local qorder = {}
    for q in mw.text.gsplit(qualID, "%p") do -- split at punctuation and iterate
        local qtrim = mw.text.trim(q)
        if qtrim ~= "" then
            qwanted[mw.text.trim(q)] = true
            qorder[#qorder+1] = qtrim
        end
    end
    -- qsep is the output separator for rendering qualifier list
    local qsep = (args.qsep or ""):gsub('"', '')
    -- qargs are the arguments to supply to assembleoutput()
    local qargs = {
        ["osd"]         = "false",
        ["linked"]      = tostring(linked),
        ["prefix"]      = args.qprefix,
        ["postfix"]     = args.qpostfix,
        ["linkprefix"]  = args.qlinkprefix or args.qlp,
        ["linkpostfix"] = args.qlinkpostfix,
        ["wdl"]         = "false",
        ["unitabbr"]    = tostring(uabbr),
        ["maxvals"]     = 0,
        ["sorted"]      = tostring(args.qsorted),
        ["noicon"]      = "true",
        ["list"]        = args.qlist,
        ["sep"]         = qsep,
        ["langobj"]     = args.langobj,
        ["lang"]        = args.langobj.code,
        ["df"]          = args.qdf,
        ["sn"]          = parseParam(args.qsn or args.qshortname, false),
    }

    -- all proper values of a Wikidata property will be the same type as the first
    -- qualifiers don't have a mainsnak, properties do
    local datatype = objproperty[1].datatype or objproperty[1].mainsnak.datatype

    -- out[] holds the a list of returned values for this property
    -- mlt[] holds the language code if the datatype is monolingual text
    local out = {}
    local mlt = {}

    for k, v in ipairs(objproperty) do
        local hasvalue = true
        if (onlysrc and not sourced(v)) then
            -- no value: it isn't sourced when onlysourced=true
            hasvalue = false
        else
            local val, lcode = rendersnak(v, args, linked, lprefix, lpostfix, prefix, postfix, uabbr )
            if not val then
                hasvalue = false -- rank doesn't match
            elseif qualsonly and qualID then
                -- suppress value returned: only qualifiers are requested
            else
                out[#out+1], mlt[#out+1] = val, lcode
            end
        end

        -- See if qualifiers are to be returned:
        local snak = v.mainsnak or v
        if hasvalue and v.qualifiers and qualID ~= "" and snak.snaktype~="novalue" then
            -- collect all wanted qualifier values returned in qlist, indexed by propertyID
            local qlist = {}
            local timestart, timeend = "", ""
            -- loop through qualifiers
            for k1, v1 in pairs(v.qualifiers) do
                if allflag or qwanted[k1] then
                    if k1 == "P1326" then
                        local ts = v1[1].datavalue.value.time
                        local dp = v1[1].datavalue.value.precision
                        qlist[k1] = dateFormat(ts, dp, args.qdf, args.bc, pd, "", lang, "before")
                    elseif k1 == "P1319" then
                        local ts = v1[1].datavalue.value.time
                        local dp = v1[1].datavalue.value.precision
                        qlist[k1] = dateFormat(ts, dp, args.qdf, args.bc, pd, "", lang, "after")
                    elseif k1 == "P580" then
                        timestart = propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs)[1] or "" -- treat only one start time as valid
                    elseif k1 == "P582" then
                        timeend = propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs)[1] or "" -- treat only one end time as valid
                    else
                        local q = assembleoutput(propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs), qargs)
                        -- we already deal with circa via 'sourcing circumstances' if the datatype was time
                        -- circa may be either linked or unlinked *** internationalise later ***
                        if datatype ~= "time" or q ~= "circa" and not (type(q) == "string" and q:find("circa]]")) then
                            qlist[k1] = q
                        end
                    end
                end -- of test for wanted
            end -- of loop through qualifiers
            -- set date separator
            local t = timestart .. timeend
            -- *** internationalise date separators later ***
            local dsep = "&ndash;"
            if t:find("%s") or t:find("&nbsp;") then dsep = " &ndash; " end
            -- set the order for the list of qualifiers returned; start time and end time go last
            if next(qlist) then
                local qlistout = {}
                if allflag then
                    for k2, v2 in pairs(qlist) do
                        qlistout[#qlistout+1] = v2
                    end
                else
                    for i2, v2 in ipairs(qorder) do
                        qlistout[#qlistout+1] = qlist[v2]
                    end
                end
                if t ~= "" then
                    qlistout[#qlistout+1] = timestart .. dsep .. timeend
                end
                local qstr = assembleoutput(qlistout, qargs)
                if qualsonly then
                    out[#out+1] = qstr
                else
                    out[#out] = out[#out] .. " (" .. qstr .. ")"
                end
            elseif t ~= "" then
                if qualsonly then
                    if timestart == "" then
                        out[#out+1] = timeend
                    elseif timeend == "" then
                        out[#out+1] = timestart
                    else
                        out[#out+1] = timestart .. dsep .. timeend
                    end
                else
                    out[#out] = out[#out] .. " (" .. timestart .. dsep .. timeend .. ")"
                end
            end
        end -- of test for qualifiers wanted

        if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    end -- of for each value loop

    -- we need to pick one value to return if the datatype was "monolingualtext"
    -- if there's only one value, use that
    -- otherwise look through the fallback languages for a match
    if datatype == "monolingualtext" and #out >1 then
        lang = mw.text.split( lang, '-', true )[1]
        local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( lang )
        table.insert( fbtbl, 1, lang )
        local bestval = ""
        local found = false
        for idx1, lang1 in ipairs(fbtbl) do
            for idx2, lang2 in ipairs(mlt) do
                if (lang1 == lang2) and not found then
                    bestval = out[idx2]
                    found = true
                    break
                end
            end -- loop through values of property
        end -- loop through fallback languages
        if found then
            -- replace output table with a table containing the best value
            out = { bestval }
        else
            -- more than one value and none of them on the list of fallback languages
            -- sod it, just give them the first one
            out = { out[1] }
        end
    end
    return out
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Common code for p.getValueByQual and p.getValueByLang
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local _getvaluebyqual = function(frame, qualID, checkvalue)

    -- The property ID that will have a qualifier is the first unnamed parameter
    local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
    if propertyID == "" then return "no property supplied" end

    if qualID == "" then return "no qualifier supplied" end

    -- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return property values
    -- only when property values are sourced to something other than Wikipedia
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
    -- if "false" or "no" or 0 is passed set it false
    local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)

    -- set the requested ranks flags
    frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)

    -- set a language object and code in the frame.args table
    frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code

    local args = frame.args

    -- check for locally supplied parameter in second unnamed parameter
    -- success means no local parameter and the property exists
    local qid, props = parseInput(frame, args[2], propertyID)

    local linked = parseParam(args.linked, true)
    local lpre = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')
    local lpost = (args.linkpostfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    local pre = (args.prefix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    local post = (args.postfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    local uabbr = parseParam(args.unitabbr or args.uabbr, false)
    local filter = (args.unit or ""):upper()
    local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    if filter == "" then filter = nil end

    if qid then
        local out = {}
        -- Scan through the values of the property
        -- we want something like property is "pronunciation audio (P443)" in propertyID
        -- with a qualifier like "language of work or name (P407)" in qualID
        -- whose value has the required ID, like "British English (Q7979)", in qval
        for k1, v1 in ipairs(props) do
            if v1.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
                -- check if it has the right qualifier
                local v1q = v1.qualifiers
                if v1q and v1q[qualID] then
                    if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
                        -- if we've got this far, we have a (sourced) claim with qualifiers
                        -- so see if matches the required value
                        -- We'll only deal with wikibase-items and strings for now
                        if v1q[qualID][1].datatype == "wikibase-item" then
                            if checkvalue(v1q[qualID][1].datavalue.value.id) then
                                out[#out + 1] = rendersnak(v1, args, linked, lpre, lpost, pre, post, uabbr, filter)
                            end
                        elseif v1q[qualID][1].datatype == "string" then
                            if checkvalue(v1q[qualID][1].datavalue.value) then
                                out[#out + 1] = rendersnak(v1, args, linked, lpre, lpost, pre, post, uabbr, filter)
                            end
                        end
                    end -- of check for sourced
                end -- of check for matching required value and has qualifiers
            else
                return nil
            end -- of check for string
            if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
        end -- of loop through values of propertyID
        return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
    else
        return props -- either local parameter or nothing
    end -- of test for success
    return nil
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- _location takes Q-id and follows P276 (location)
-- or P131 (located in the administrative territorial entity) or P706 (located on terrain feature)
-- from the initial item to higher level territories/locations until it reaches the highest.
-- An optional boolean, 'first', determines whether the first item is returned (default: false).
-- An optional boolean 'skip' toggles the display to skip to the last item (default: false).
-- It returns a table containing the locations - linked where possible, except for the highest.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang(); labelOrId(); linkedItem
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local _location = function(qid, first, skip)
    first = parseParam(first, false)
    skip = parseParam(skip, false)
    local locs = {"P276", "P131", "P706"}
    local out = {}
    local langcode = findLang():getCode()
    local finished = false
    local count = 0
    local prevqid = "Q0"
    repeat
        local prop
        for i1, v1 in ipairs(locs) do
            local proptbl = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, v1)
            if #proptbl > 1 then
                -- there is more than one higher location
                local prevP131, prevP131id
                if prevqid ~= "Q0" then
                    prevP131 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(prevqid, "P131")[1]
                    prevP131id = prevP131
                    and prevP131.mainsnak.datavalue
                    and prevP131.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
                end
                for i2, v2 in ipairs(proptbl) do
                    local parttbl = v2.qualifiers and v2.qualifiers.P518
                    if parttbl then
                        -- this higher location has qualifier 'applies to part' (P518)
                        for i3, v3 in ipairs(parttbl) do
                            if v3.snaktype == "value" and v3.datavalue.value.id == prevqid then
                                -- it has a value equal to the previous location
                                prop = proptbl[i2]
                                break
                            end -- of test for matching last location
                        end -- of loop through values of 'applies to part'
                    else
                        -- there's no qualifier 'applies to part' (P518)
                        -- so check if the previous location had a P131 that matches this alternate
                        if qid == prevP131id then
                                prop = proptbl[i2]
                                break
                        end -- of test for matching previous P131
                    end
                end -- of loop through parent locations
                -- fallback to second value if match not found
                prop = prop or proptbl[2]
            elseif #proptbl > 0 then
                prop = proptbl[1]
            end
            if prop then break end
        end

        -- check if it's an instance of (P31) a country (Q6256) or sovereign state (Q3624078)
        -- and terminate the chain if it is
        local inst = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, "P31")
        if #inst > 0 then
            for k, v in ipairs(inst) do
                local instid = v.mainsnak.datavalue and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
                -- stop if it's a country (or a country within the United Kingdom if skip is true)
                if instid == "Q6256" or instid == "Q3624078" or (skip and instid == "Q3336843") then
                    prop = nil -- this will ensure this is treated as top-level location
                    break
                end
            end
        end

        -- get the name of this location and update qid to point to the parent location
        if prop and prop.mainsnak.datavalue then
            if not skip or count == 0 then
                local args = { lprefix = ":" }
                out[#out+1] = linkedItem(qid, args) -- get a linked value if we can
            end
            qid, prevqid = prop.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id, qid
        else
            -- This is top-level location, so get short name except when this is the first item
            -- Use full label if there's no short name or this is the first item
            local prop1813 = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, "P1813")
            -- if there's a short name and this isn't the only item
            if prop1813[1] and (#out > 0)then
                local shortname
                -- short name is monolingual text, so look for match to the local language
                -- choose the shortest 'short name' in that language
                for k, v in pairs(prop1813) do
                    if v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == langcode then
                        local name = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text
                        if (not shortname) or (#name < #shortname) then
                            shortname = name
                        end
                    end
                end
                -- add the shortname if one is found, fallback to the label
                -- but skip it if it's "USA"
                if shortname ~= "USA" then
                    out[#out+1] = shortname or labelOrId(qid)
                else
                    if skip then out[#out+1] = "US" end
                end
            else
                -- no shortname, so just add the label
                local loc = labelOrId(qid)
                -- exceptions go here:
                if loc == "United States of America" then
                    out[#out+1] = "United States"
                else
                    out[#out+1] = loc
                end
            end
            finished = true
        end
        count = count + 1
    until finished or count >= 10 -- limit to 10 levels to avoid infinite loops

    -- remove the first location if not required
    if not first then table.remove(out, 1) end

    -- we might have duplicate text for consecutive locations, so remove them
    if #out > 2 then
        local plain = {}
        for i, v in ipairs(out) do
            -- strip any links
            plain[i] = v:gsub("^%[%[[^|]*|", ""):gsub("]]$", "")
        end
        local idx = 2
        repeat
            if plain[idx] == plain[idx-1] then
                -- duplicate found
                local removeidx = 0
                if (plain[idx] ~= out[idx]) and (plain[idx-1] == out[idx-1]) then
                    -- only second one is linked, so drop the first
                    removeidx = idx - 1
                elseif (plain[idx] == out[idx]) and (plain[idx-1] ~= out[idx-1]) then
                    -- only first one is linked, so drop the second
                    removeidx = idx
                else
                    -- pick one
                    removeidx = idx - (os.time()%2)
                end
                table.remove(out, removeidx)
                table.remove(plain, removeidx)
            else
                idx = idx +1
            end
        until idx >= #out
    end
    return out
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- _getsumofparts scans the property 'has part' (P527) for values matching a list.
-- The list (args.vlist) consists of a string of Qids separated by spaces or any usual punctuation.
-- If the matched values have a qualifer 'quantity' (P1114), those quantites are summed.
-- The sum is returned as a number (i.e. 0 if none)
-- a table of arguments is supplied implementing the usual parameters.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: setRanks; parseParam; parseInput; sourced; assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local _getsumofparts = function(args)
    local vallist = (args.vlist or ""):upper()
    if vallist == "" then return end
    args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    local f = {}
    f.args = args
    local qid, props = parseInput(f, "", "P527")
    if not qid then return 0 end
    local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    local sum = 0
    for k1, v1 in ipairs(props) do
        if (onlysrc == false or sourced(v1))
            and v1.mainsnak.snaktype == "value"
            and v1.mainsnak.datavalue.type == "wikibase-entityid"
            and vallist:match( v1.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id )
            and v1.qualifiers
            then
            local quals = v1.qualifiers["P1114"]
            if quals then
                for k2, v2 in ipairs(quals) do
                    sum = sum + v2.datavalue.value.amount
                end
            end
        end
    end
    return sum
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Public functions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- _getValue makes the functionality of getValue available to other modules
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: setRanks; parseInput; propertyvalueandquals; assembleoutput; parseParam; sourced;
-- labelOrId; i18n.latestdatequalifier; format_Date; makeOrdinal; roundto; decimalPrecision; decimalToDMS;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p._getValue = function(args)
    -- parameter sets for commonly used groups of parameters
    local paraset = tonumber(args.ps or args.parameterset or 0)
    if paraset == 1 then
        -- a common setting
        args.rank = "best"
        args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
        args.onlysourced = "no"
        args.noicon = "true"
    elseif paraset == 2 then
        -- equivalent to raw
        args.rank = "best"
        args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
        args.onlysourced = "no"
        args.noicon = "true"
        args.linked = "no"
        args.pd = "true"
    elseif paraset == 3 then
        -- third set goes here
    end

    -- implement eid parameter
    local eid = args.eid
    if eid == "" then
        return nil
    elseif eid then
        args.qid = eid
    end

    local propertyID = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")

    args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)

    -- replacetext (rt) is a string that is returned instead of any non-empty Wikidata value
    -- this is useful for tracking and debugging, so we set fetchwikidata=ALL to fill the whitelist
    local replacetext = mw.text.trim(args.rt or args.replacetext or "")
    if replacetext ~= "" then
        args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
    end

    local f = {}
    f.args = args
    local entityid, props = parseInput(f, f.args[2], propertyID)

    if not entityid then
        return props -- either the input parameter or nothing
    end
    -- see if label should be in feminine form
    if args.gender == "" then
        local prop21 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(entityid, "P21")
    for k, v in ipairs(prop21) do
            if v.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
            if v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == "Q6581072" or v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == "Q1052281" or v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == "Q43445" then
                   args.gender = "F"
--                 args.gender = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
               break
        end
               end
        end
    end

    -- qual is a string containing the property ID of the qualifier(s) to be returned
    -- if qual == "ALL" then all qualifiers returned
    -- if qual == "DATES" then qualifiers P580 (start time) and P582 (end time) returned
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it nil -> no qualifiers returned
    local qualID = mw.text.trim(args.qual or ""):upper()
    if qualID == "" then qualID = nil end

    -- set a language object and code in the args table
    args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    args.lang = args.langobj.code
 
    if args.artigosemlink=="yes" or args.artigosemlink=="sim" then args.linked = "no" end

    -- table 'out' stores the return value(s):
    local out = propertyvalueandquals(props, args, qualID)

    -- format the table of values and return it as a string:
    return assembleoutput(out, args, entityid, propertyID)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValue is used to get the value(s) of a property
-- The property ID is passed as the first unnamed parameter and is required.
-- A locally supplied parameter may optionaly be supplied as the second unnamed parameter.
-- The function will now also return qualifiers if parameter qual is supplied
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getValue; setRanks; parseInput; propertyvalueandquals; assembleoutput; parseParam; sourced;
-- labelOrId; i18n.latestdatequalifier; format_Date; makeOrdinal; roundto; decimalPrecision; decimalToDMS;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getValue = function(frame)
    local args= frame.args
    if not args[1] then
        args = frame:getParent().args
        if not args[1] then return i18n.errors["No property supplied"] end
    end

    return p._getValue(args)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getPreferredValue is used to get a value,
-- (or a comma separated list of them if multiple values exist).
-- If preferred ranks are set, it will return those values, otherwise values with normal ranks
-- now redundant to getValue with |rank=best
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: p.getValue; setRanks; parseInput; propertyvalueandquals; assembleoutput;
-- parseParam; sourced; labelOrId; i18n.latestdatequalifier; format_Date;
-- makeOrdinal; roundto; decimalPrecision; decimalToDMS;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getPreferredValue = function(frame)
    frame.args.rank = "best"
    return p.getValue(frame)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getCoords is used to get coordinates for display in an infobox
-- whitelist and blacklist are implemented
-- optional 'display' parameter is allowed, defaults to nil - was "inline, title"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: setRanks(); parseInput(); decimalPrecision();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getCoords = function(frame)
    local propertyID = "P625"

    -- if there is a 'display' parameter supplied, use it
    -- otherwise default to nothing
    local disp = frame.args.display or ""
    if disp == "" then
        disp = nil -- default to not supplying display parameter, was "inline, title"
    end

    -- there may be a format parameter to switch from deg/min/sec to decimal degrees
    -- default is deg/min/sec
    -- decimal degrees needs |format = dec
    local form = (frame.args.format or ""):lower():sub(1,3)
    if form ~= "dec" then
        form = "dms"
    end

    -- just deal with best values
    frame.args.reqranks = setRanks("best")

    local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[1], propertyID)
    if not qid then
        return props -- either local parameter or nothing
    else
        local dv = props[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value
        local lat, long, prec = dv.latitude, dv.longitude, dv.precision
        lat = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
        long = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
        local lat_long = { lat, long }
        lat_long["display"] = disp
        lat_long["format"] = form
        -- invoke template Coord with the values stored in the table
        return frame:expandTemplate{title = 'coord', args = lat_long}
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getQualifierValue is used to get a formatted value of a qualifier
--
-- The call needs:    a property (the unnamed parameter or 1=)
--                     a target value for that property (pval=)
--                    a qualifier for that target value (qual=)
-- The usual whitelisting and blacklisting of the property is implemented
-- The boolean onlysourced= parameter can be set to return nothing
-- when the property is unsourced (or only sourced to Wikipedia)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam(); setRanks(); parseInput(); sourced();
-- propertyvalueandquals(); assembleoutput();
-- labelOrId(); i18n.latestdatequalifier(); format_Date();
-- findLang(); makeOrdinal(); roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getQualifierValue = function(frame)

    -- The property ID that will have a qualifier is the first unnamed parameter
    local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")

    -- The value of the property we want to match whose qualifier value is to be returned
    -- is passed in named parameter |pval=
    local propvalue = frame.args.pval

    -- The property ID of the qualifier
    -- whose value is to be returned is passed in named parameter |qual=
    local qualifierID = frame.args.qual

    -- A filter can be set like this: filter=P642==Q22674854
    local filter, fprop, fval
    local ftable = mw.text.split(frame.args.filter or "", "==")
    if ftable[2] then
        fprop = mw.text.trim(ftable[1])
        fval = mw.text.trim(ftable[2])
        filter = true
    end

    -- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return qualifiers
    -- only when property values are sourced to something other than Wikipedia
    -- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
    -- if "false" or "no" or 0 is passed set it false
    local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)

    -- set a language object and language code in the frame.args table
    frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code

    -- set the requested ranks flags
    frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)

    -- check for locally supplied parameter in second unnamed parameter
    -- success means no local parameter and the property exists
    local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[2], propertyID)
    if qid then
        local out = {}
        -- Scan through the values of the property
        -- we want something like property is P793, significant event (in propertyID)
        -- whose value is something like Q385378, construction (in propvalue)
        -- then we can return the value(s) of a qualifier such as P580, start time (in qualifierID)
        for k1, v1 in pairs(props) do
            if v1.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and v1.mainsnak.datavalue.type == "wikibase-entityid" then
                -- It's a wiki-linked value, so check if it's the target (in propvalue) and if it has qualifiers
                if v1.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == propvalue and v1.qualifiers then
                    if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
                        -- if we've got this far, we have a (sourced) claim with qualifiers
                        -- which matches the target, so apply the filter and find the value(s) of the qualifier we want
                        if not filter or (v1.qualifiers[fprop] and v1.qualifiers[fprop][1].datavalue.value.id == fval) then
                            local quals = v1.qualifiers[qualifierID]
                            if quals then
                                -- can't reference qualifer, so set onlysourced = "no" (args are strings, not boolean)
                                local qargs = frame.args
                                qargs.onlysourced = "no"
                                local vals = propertyvalueandquals(quals, qargs, qid)
                                for k, v in ipairs(vals) do
                                    out[#out + 1] = v
                                end
                            end
                        end
                    end -- of check for sourced
                end -- of check for matching required value and has qualifiers
            end -- of check for wikibase entity
        end -- of loop through values of propertyID
        return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
    else
        return props -- either local parameter or nothing
    end -- of test for success
    return nil
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getSumOfParts scans the property 'has part' (P527) for values matching a list.
-- The list is passed in parameter vlist.
-- It consists of a string of Qids separated by spaces or any usual punctuation.
-- If the matched values have a qualifier 'quantity' (P1114), those quantities are summed.
-- The sum is returned as a number or nothing if zero.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getsumofparts;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getSumOfParts = function(frame)
    local sum = _getsumofparts(frame.args)
    if sum == 0 then return end
    return sum
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValueByQual gets the value of a property which has a qualifier with a given entity value
-- The call needs:
--                    a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
--                    the ID of a qualifier for that property (qualID=Pyyy)
--                    either the Wikibase-entity ID of a value for that qualifier (qvalue=Qzzz)
--                    or a string value for that qualifier (qvalue=abc123)
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getvaluebyqual; parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced;
-- assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getValueByQual = function(frame)
    local qualID = frame.args.qualID
    -- The Q-id of the value for the qualifier we want to match is in named parameter |qvalue=
    local qval = frame.args.qvalue or ""
    if qval == "" then return "no qualifier value supplied" end
    local function checkQID(id)
        return id == qval
    end
    return _getvaluebyqual(frame, qualID, checkQID)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValueByLang gets the value of a property which has a qualifier P407
-- ("language of work or name") whose value has the given language code
-- The call needs:
--                    a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
--                    the MediaWiki language code to match the language (lang=xx[-yy])
--                    (if no code is supplied, it uses the default language)
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getvaluebyqual; parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getValueByLang = function(frame)
    -- The language code for the qualifier we want to match is in named parameter |lang=
    local langcode = findLang(frame.args.lang).code
    local function checkLanguage(id)
        -- id should represent a language like "British English (Q7979)"
        -- it should have string property "Wikimedia language code (P424)"
        -- qlcode will be a table:
        local qlcode = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P424")
        if (#qlcode > 0) and (qlcode[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value == langcode) then
            return true
        end
    end
    return _getvaluebyqual(frame, "P407", checkLanguage)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValueByRefSource gets the value of a property which has a reference "stated in" (P248)
-- whose value has the given entity-ID.
-- The call needs:
--                    a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
--                    the entity ID of a value to match where the reference is stated in (match=Qzzz)
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getValueByRefSource = function(frame)
    -- The property ID that we want to check is the first unnamed parameter
    local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or ""):upper()
    if propertyID == "" then return "no property supplied" end

    -- The Q-id of the value we want to match is in named parameter |qvalue=
    local qval = (frame.args.match or ""):upper()
    if qval == "" then qval = "Q21540096" end

    local unit = (frame.args.unit or ""):upper()
    if unit == "" then unit = "Q4917" end

    local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)

    -- set the requested ranks flags
    frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)

    -- set a language object and code in the frame.args table
    frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code

    local linked = parseParam(frame.args.linked, true)

    local uabbr = parseParam(frame.args.uabbr or frame.args.unitabbr, false)

    -- qid not nil means no local parameter and the property exists
    local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[2], propertyID)

    if qid then
        local out = {}
        local mlt= {}
        for k1, v1 in ipairs(props) do
            if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
                if v1.references then
                    for k2, v2 in ipairs(v1.references) do
                        if v2.snaks.P248 then
                            for k3, v3 in ipairs(v2.snaks.P248) do
                                if v3.datavalue.value.id == qval then
                                    out[#out+1], mlt[#out+1] = rendersnak(v1, frame.args, linked, "", "", "", "", uabbr, unit)
                                    if not mlt[#out] then
                                        -- we only need one match per property value
                                        -- unless datatype was monolingual text
                                        break
                                    end
                                end -- of test for match
                            end -- of loop through values "stated in"
                        end -- of test that "stated in" exists
                    end -- of loop through references
                end -- of test that references exist
            end -- of test for sourced
        end -- of loop through values of propertyID
        if #mlt > 0 then
            local langcode = frame.args.lang
            langcode = mw.text.split( langcode, '-', true )[1]
            local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( langcode )
            table.insert( fbtbl, 1, langcode )
            local bestval = ""
            local found = false
            for idx1, lang1 in ipairs(fbtbl) do
                for idx2, lang2 in ipairs(mlt) do
                    if (lang1 == lang2) and not found then
                        bestval = out[idx2]
                        found = true
                        break
                    end
                end -- loop through values of property
            end -- loop through fallback languages
            if found then
                -- replace output table with a table containing the best value
                out = { bestval }
            else
                -- more than one value and none of them on the list of fallback languages
                -- sod it, just give them the first one
                out = { out[1] }
            end
        end
        return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
    else
        return props -- no property or local parameter supplied
    end -- of test for success
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getPropertyIDs takes most of the usual parameters.
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented.
-- It returns the Entity-IDs (Qids) of the values of a property if it is a Wikibase-Entity.
-- Otherwise it returns nothing.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p._getPropertyIDs = function(args)
    args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    args.lang = args.langobj.code
    -- change default for noicon to true
    args.noicon = tostring(parseParam(args.noicon or "", true))
    local f = {}
    f.args = args
    local pid = mw.text.trim(args[1] or ""):upper()

    -- get the qid and table of claims for the property, or nothing and the local value passed
    local qid, props = parseInput(f, args[2], pid)
    if not qid then return props end
    if not props[1] then return nil end
    local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0

    local out = {}
    for i, v in ipairs(props) do
        local snak = v.mainsnak
        if ( snak.datatype == "wikibase-item" )
            and ( v.rank and args.reqranks[v.rank:sub(1, 1)] )
            and ( snak.snaktype == "value" )
            and ( sourced(v) or not onlysrc )
            then
            out[#out+1] = snak.datavalue.value.id
        end
        if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    end

    return assembleoutput(out, args, qid, pid)
end

p.getPropertyIDs = function(frame)
    local args = frame.args
    return p._getPropertyIDs(args)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getQualifierIDs takes most of the usual parameters.
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented.
-- It takes a property-id as the first unnamed parameter, and an optional parameter qlist
-- which is a list of qualifier property-ids to search for (default is "ALL")
-- It returns the Entity-IDs (Qids) of the values of a property if it is a Wikibase-Entity.
-- Otherwise it returns nothing.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getQualifierIDs = function(frame)
    local args = frame.args
    args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    args.lang = args.langobj.code
    -- change default for noicon to true
    args.noicon = tostring(parseParam(args.noicon or "", true))
    local f = {}
    f.args = args
    local pid = mw.text.trim(args[1] or ""):upper()

    -- get the qid and table of claims for the property, or nothing and the local value passed
    local qid, props = parseInput(f, args[2], pid)
    if not qid then return props end
    if not props[1] then return nil end
    -- get the other parameters
    local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    local qlist = args.qlist or ""
    if qlist == "" then qlist = "ALL" end
    qlist = qlist:gsub("[%p%s]+", " ") .. " "

    local out = {}
    for i, v in ipairs(props) do
        local snak = v.mainsnak
        if ( v.rank and args.reqranks[v.rank:sub(1, 1)] )
            and ( snak.snaktype == "value" )
            and ( sourced(v) or not onlysrc )
            then
            if v.qualifiers then
                for k1, v1 in pairs(v.qualifiers) do
                    if qlist == "ALL " or qlist:match(k1 .. " ") then
                        for i2, v2 in ipairs(v1) do
                            if v2.datatype == "wikibase-item" and v2.snaktype == "value" then
                                out[#out+1] = v2.datavalue.value.id
                            end -- of test that id exists
                        end -- of loop through qualifier values
                    end -- of test for kq in qlist
                end -- of loop through qualifiers
            end -- of test for qualifiers
        end -- of test for rank value, sourced, and value exists
        if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    end -- of loop through property values

    return assembleoutput(out, args, qid, pid)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getPropOfProp takes two propertyIDs: prop1 and prop2 (as well as the usual parameters)
-- If the value(s) of prop1 are of type "wikibase-item" then it returns the value(s) of prop2
-- of each of those wikibase-items.
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p._getPropOfProp = function(args)
    -- parameter sets for commonly used groups of parameters
    local paraset = tonumber(args.ps or args.parameterset or 0)
    if paraset == 1 then
        -- a common setting
        args.rank = "best"
        args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
        args.onlysourced = "no"
        args.noicon = "true"
    elseif paraset == 2 then
        -- equivalent to raw
        args.rank = "best"
        args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
        args.onlysourced = "no"
        args.noicon = "true"
        args.linked = "no"
        args.pd = "true"
    elseif paraset == 3 then
        -- third set goes here
    end

    args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    args.lang = args.langobj.code
    local pid1 = args.prop1 or args.pid1 or ""
    local pid2 = args.prop2 or args.pid2 or ""
    if pid1 == "" or pid2 == "" then return nil end

    local f = {}
    f.args = args
    local qid1, statements1 = parseInput(f, args[1], pid1)
    -- parseInput nulls empty args[1] and returns args[1] if nothing on Wikidata
    if not qid1 then return statements1 end
    -- otherwise it returns the qid and a table for the statement
    local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    local qualID = mw.text.trim(args.qual or ""):upper()
    if qualID == "" then qualID = nil end
    local out = {}
    for k, v in ipairs(statements1) do
        if not onlysrc or sourced(v) then
            local snak = v.mainsnak
            if snak.datatype == "wikibase-item" and snak.snaktype == "value" then
                local qid2 = snak.datavalue.value.id
                local statements2 = {}
                if args.reqranks.b then
                    statements2 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid2, pid2)
                else
                    statements2 = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid2, pid2)
                end
                if statements2[1] then
                    local out2 = propertyvalueandquals(statements2, args, qualID)
                    out[#out+1] = assembleoutput(out2, args, qid2, pid2)
                end
            end -- of test for valid property1 value
        end -- of test for sourced
        if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    end -- of loop through values of property1
    return assembleoutput(out, args, qid1, pid1)
end

p.getPropOfProp = function(frame)
    local args= frame.args
    if not args.prop1 and not args.pid1 then
        args = frame:getParent().args
        if not args.prop1 and not args.pid1 then return i18n.errors["No property supplied"] end
    end

    return p._getPropOfProp(args)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAwardCat takes most of the usual parameters. If the item has values of P166 (award received),
-- then it examines each of those awards for P2517 (category for recipients of this award).
-- If it exists, it returns the corresponding category,
-- with the item's P734 (family name) as sort key, or no sort key if there is no family name.
-- The sort key may be overridden by the parameter |sortkey (alias |sk).
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAwardCat = function(frame)
    frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)
    frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code
    local args = frame.args
    args.sep = " "
    local pid1 = args.prop1 or "P166"
    local pid2 = args.prop2 or "P2517"
    if pid1 == "" or pid2 == "" then return nil end
    -- locally supplied value:
    local localval = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    local qid1, statements1 = parseInput(frame, localval, pid1)
    if not qid1 then return localval end
    -- linkprefix (strip quotes)
    local lp = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')
    -- sort key (strip quotes, hyphens and periods):
    local sk = (args.sortkey or args.sk or ""):gsub('["-.]', '')
    -- family name:
    local famname = ""
    if sk == "" then
        local p734 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid1, "P734")[1]
        local p734id = p734 and p734.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and p734.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id or ""
        famname = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(p734id) or ""
        -- strip namespace and disambigation
        local pos = famname:find(":") or 0
        famname = famname:sub(pos+1):gsub("%s%(.+%)$", "")
        if famname == "" then
            local lbl = mw.wikibase.getLabel(p734id)
            famname = lbl and mw.text.nowiki(lbl) or ""
        end
    end
    local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    local qualID = mw.text.trim(args.qual or ""):upper()
    if qualID == "" then qualID = nil end
    local out = {}
    for k, v in ipairs(statements1) do
        if not onlysrc or sourced(v) then
            local snak = v.mainsnak
            if snak.datatype == "wikibase-item" and snak.snaktype == "value" then
                local qid2 = snak.datavalue.value.id
                local statements2 = {}
                if args.reqranks.b then
                    statements2 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid2, pid2)
                else
                    statements2 = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid2, pid2)
                end
                if statements2[1] and statements2[1].mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
                    local qid3 = statements2[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
                    local sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(qid3)
                    -- if there's no local sitelink, create the sitelink from English label
                    if not sitelink then
                        local lbl = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(qid3, "en")
                        if lbl then
                            if lbl:sub(1,9) == "Category:" then
                                sitelink = mw.text.nowiki(lbl)
                            else
                                sitelink = "Category:" .. mw.text.nowiki(lbl)
                            end
                        end
                    end
                    if sitelink then
                        if sk ~= "" then
                            out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. sitelink .. "|" .. sk .. "]]"
                        elseif famname ~= "" then
                            out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. sitelink .. "|" .. famname .. "]]"
                        else
                            out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. sitelink .. "]]"
                        end -- of check for sort keys
                    end -- of test for sitelink
                end -- of test for category
            end -- of test for wikibase item has a value
        end -- of test for sourced
        if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    end -- of loop through values of property1
    return assembleoutput(out, args, qid1, pid1)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getIntersectCat takes most of the usual parameters.
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-- It takes two properties, |prop1 and |prop2 (e.g. occupation and country of citizenship)
-- Each property's value is a wiki-base entity
-- For each value of the first parameter (ranks implemented) it fetches the value's main category
-- and then each value of the second parameter (possibly substituting a simpler description)
-- then it returns all of the categories representing the intersection of those properties,
-- (e.g. Category:Actors from Canada). A joining term may be supplied (e.g. |join=from).
-- The item's P734 (family name) is the sort key, or no sort key if there is no family name.
-- The sort key may be overridden by the parameter |sortkey (alias |sk).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getIntersectCat = function(frame)
    frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)
    frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code
    local args = frame.args
    args.sep = " "
    args.linked = "no"
    local pid1 = args.prop1 or "P106"
    local pid2 = args.prop2 or "P27"
    if pid1 == "" or pid2 == "" then return nil end
    local qid, statements1 = parseInput(frame, "", pid1)
    if not qid then return nil end
    local qid, statements2 = parseInput(frame, "", pid2)
    if not qid then return nil end
    -- topics like countries may have different names in categories from their label in Wikidata
    local subs_exists, subs = pcall(mw.loadData, "Module:WikidataIB/subs")
    local join = args.join or ""
    local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    -- linkprefix (strip quotes)
    local lp = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')
    -- sort key (strip quotes, hyphens and periods):
    local sk = (args.sortkey or args.sk or ""):gsub('["-.]', '')
    -- family name:
    local famname = ""
    if sk == "" then
        local p734 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P734")[1]
        local p734id = p734 and p734.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and p734.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id or ""
        famname = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(p734id) or ""
        -- strip namespace and disambigation
        local pos = famname:find(":") or 0
        famname = famname:sub(pos+1):gsub("%s%(.+%)$", "")
        if famname == "" then
            local lbl = mw.wikibase.getLabel(p734id)
            famname = lbl and mw.text.nowiki(lbl) or ""
        end
    end
    local cat1 = {}
    for k, v in ipairs(statements1) do
        if not onlysrc or sourced(v) then
            -- get the ID representing the value of the property
            local pvalID = (v.mainsnak.snaktype == "value") and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
            if pvalID then
                -- get the topic's main category (P910) for that entity
                local p910 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(pvalID, "P910")[1]
                if p910 and p910.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
                    local tmcID = p910.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
                    -- use sitelink or the English label for the cat
                    local cat = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(tmcID)
                    if not cat then
                        local lbl = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(tmcID, "en")
                        if lbl then
                            if lbl:sub(1,9) == "Category:" then
                                cat = mw.text.nowiki(lbl)
                            else
                                cat = "Category:" .. mw.text.nowiki(lbl)
                            end
                        end
                    end
                    cat1[#cat1+1] = cat
                end -- of test for topic's main category exists
            end -- of test for property has vaild value
        end -- of test for sourced
        if maxvals > 0 and #cat1 >= maxvals then break end
    end
    local cat2 = {}
    for k, v in ipairs(statements2) do
        if not onlysrc or sourced(v) then
            local cat = rendersnak(v, args)
            if subs[cat] then cat = subs[cat] end
            cat2[#cat2+1] = cat
        end
        if maxvals > 0 and #cat2 >= maxvals then break end
    end
    local out = {}
    for k1, v1 in ipairs(cat1) do
        for k2, v2 in ipairs(cat2) do
            if sk ~= "" then
                out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. v1 .. " " .. join .. " " .. v2 .. "|" .. sk .. "]]"
            elseif famname ~= "" then
                out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. v1 .. " " .. join .. " " .. v2 .. "|" .. famname .. "]]"
            else
                out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. v1 .. " " .. join .. " " .. v2 .. "]]"
            end -- of check for sort keys
        end
    end
    args.noicon = "true"
    return assembleoutput(out, args, qid, pid1)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- qualsToTable takes most of the usual parameters.
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented.
-- A qid may be given, and the first unnamed parameter is the property ID, which is of type wikibase item.
-- It takes a list of qualifier property IDs as |quals=
-- For a given qid and property, it creates the rows of an html table,
-- each row being a value of the property (optionally only if the property matches the value in |pval= )
-- each cell being the first value of the qualifier corresponding to the list in |quals
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.qualsToTable = function(frame)
    local args = frame.args

    local quals = args.quals or ""
    if quals == "" then return "" end

    args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)

    local propertyID = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    local f = {}
    f.args = args
    local entityid, props = parseInput(f, "", propertyID)
    if not entityid then return "" end

    args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    args.lang = args.langobj.code

    local pval = args.pval or ""

    local qplist = mw.text.split(quals, "%p") -- split at punctuation and make a sequential table
    for i, v in ipairs(qplist) do
        qplist[i] = mw.text.trim(v):upper() -- remove whitespace and capitalise
    end

    local col1 = args.firstcol or ""
    if col1 ~= "" then
        col1 = col1 .. "</td><td>"
    end

    local emptycell = args.emptycell or "&nbsp;"

    -- construct a 2-D array of qualifier values in qvals
    local qvals = {}
    for i, v in ipairs(props) do
        local skip = false
        if pval ~= "" then
            local pid = v.mainsnak.datavalue and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
            if pid ~= pval then skip = true end
        end
        if not skip then
            local qval = {}
            local vqualifiers = v.qualifiers or {}
            -- go through list of wanted qualifier properties
            for i1, v1 in ipairs(qplist) do
                -- check for that property ID in the statement's qualifiers
                local qv, qtype
                if vqualifiers[v1] then
                    qtype = vqualifiers[v1][1].datatype
                    if qtype == "time" then
                        if vqualifiers[v1][1].snaktype == "value" then
                            qv = mw.wikibase.renderSnak(vqualifiers[v1][1])
                            qv = frame:expandTemplate{title="dts", args={qv}}
                        else
                            qv = "?"
                        end
                    elseif qtype == "url" then
                        if vqualifiers[v1][1].snaktype == "value" then
                            qv = mw.wikibase.renderSnak(vqualifiers[v1][1])
                            local display = mw.ustring.match( mw.uri.decode(qv, "WIKI"), "([%w ]+)$" )
                            if display then
                                qv = "[" .. qv .. " " .. display .. "]"
                            end
                        end
                    else
                        qv = mw.wikibase.formatValue(vqualifiers[v1][1])
                    end
                end
                -- record either the value or a placeholder
                qval[i1] = qv or emptycell
            end -- of loop through list of qualifiers
            -- add the list of qualifier values as a "row" in the main list
            qvals[#qvals+1] = qval
        end
    end -- of for each value loop

    local out = {}
    for i, v in ipairs(qvals) do
        out[i] = "<tr><td>" .. col1 .. table.concat(qvals[i], "</td><td>") .. "</td></tr>"
    end
    return table.concat(out, "\n")
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getGlobe takes an optional qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
-- otherwise it uses the linked item for the current page.
-- If returns the Qid of the globe used in P625 (coordinate location),
-- or nil if there isn't one.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getGlobe = function(frame)
    local qid = frame.args.qid or frame.args[1] or ""
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    local coords = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P625")[1]
    local globeid
    if coords and coords.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
        globeid = coords.mainsnak.datavalue.value.globe:match("(Q%d+)")
    end
    return globeid
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getCommonsLink takes an optional qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
-- It returns one of the following in order of preference:
-- the Commons sitelink of the linked Wikidata item;
-- the Commons sitelink of the topic's main category of the linked Wikidata item;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getCommonslink(); _getSitelink(); parseParam()
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getCommonsLink = function(frame)
    local oc = frame.args.onlycat or frame.args.onlycategories
    local fb = parseParam(frame.args.fallback or frame.args.fb, true)
    return _getCommonslink(frame.args.qid, oc, fb)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getSitelink takes the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
-- It takes an optional parameter |wiki= to determine which wiki is to be checked for a sitelink
-- If the parameter is blank, then it uses the local wiki.
-- If there is a sitelink to an article available, it returns the plain text link to the article
-- If there is no sitelink, it returns nil.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getSiteLink = function(frame)
    return _getSitelink(frame.args.qid, frame.args.wiki or mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or ""))
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getLink has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
-- If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns a link to the article
-- with the Wikidata label as the displayed text.
-- If there is no sitelink, it returns the label as plain text.
-- If there is no label in the local language, it displays the qid instead.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getLink = function(frame)
    local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
    if itemID == "" then return end
    local sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(itemID)
    local label = labelOrId(itemID)
    if sitelink then
        return "[[:" .. sitelink .. "|" .. label .. "]]"
    else
        return label
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getLabel has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
-- It returns the Wikidata label for the local language as plain text.
-- If there is no label in the local language, it displays the qid instead.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getLabel = function(frame)
    local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
    if itemID == "" then return end
    local lang = frame.args.lang or ""
    if lang == "" then lang = nil end
    local label = labelOrId(itemID, lang)
    return label
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- label has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
-- if no qid is supplied, it uses the qid associated with the current page.
-- It returns the Wikidata label for the local language as plain text.
-- If there is no label in the local language, it returns nil.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.label = function(frame)
    local qid = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then return end
    local lang = frame.args.lang or ""
    if lang == "" then lang = nil end
    local label, success = labelOrId(qid, lang)
    if success then return label end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAT (Article Title)
-- has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
-- If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns the sitelink as plain text.
-- If there is no sitelink or qid supplied, it returns nothing.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAT = function(frame)
    local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
    if itemID == "" then return end
    return mw.wikibase.getSitelink(itemID)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getDescription has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
-- (it defaults to the associated qid of the current article if omitted)
-- and a local parameter passed as the first unnamed parameter.
-- Any local parameter passed (other than "Wikidata" or "none") becomes the return value.
-- It returns the article description for the Wikidata entity if the local parameter is "Wikidata".
-- Nothing is returned if the description doesn't exist or "none" is passed as the local parameter.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getDescription = function(frame)
    local desc = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
    local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args.qid or "")
    if itemID == "" then itemID = nil end
    if desc:lower() == 'wikidata' then
        return mw.wikibase.getDescription(itemID)
    elseif desc:lower() == 'none' then
        return nil
    else
        return desc
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAliases has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
-- (it defaults to the associated qid of the current article if omitted)
-- and a local parameter passed as the first unnamed parameter.
-- It implements blacklisting and whitelisting with a field name of "alias" by default.
-- Any local parameter passed becomes the return value.
-- Otherwise it returns the aliases for the Wikidata entity with the usual list options.
-- Nothing is returned if the aliases do not exist.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang(); assembleoutput()
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAliases = function(frame)
    local args = frame.args

    local fieldname = args.name or ""
    if fieldname == "" then fieldname = "alias" end

    local blacklist = args.suppressfields or args.spf or ""
    if blacklist:find(fieldname) then return nil end

    local localval = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    if localval ~= "" then return localval end

    local whitelist = args.fetchwikidata or args.fwd or ""
    if whitelist == "" then whitelist = "NONE" end
    if not (whitelist == 'ALL' or whitelist:find(fieldname)) then return nil end

    local qid = args.qid or ""
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(qid) then return nil end

    local aliases = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid).aliases
    if not aliases then return nil end

    args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    local langcode = args.langobj.code
    args.lang = langcode

    local out = {}
    for k1, v1 in pairs(aliases) do
        if v1[1].language == langcode then
            for k1, v2 in ipairs(v1) do
                out[#out+1] = v2.value
            end
            break
        end
    end

    return assembleoutput(out, args, qid)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- pageId returns the page id (entity ID, Qnnn) of the current page
-- returns nothing if the page is not connected to Wikidata
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.pageId = function(frame)
    return mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- formatDate is a wrapper to export the private function format_Date
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: format_Date();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.formatDate = function(frame)
    return format_Date(frame.args[1], frame.args.df, frame.args.bc)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- location is a wrapper to export the private function _location
-- it takes the entity-id as qid or the first unnamed parameter
-- optional boolean parameter first toggles the display of the first item
-- optional boolean parameter skip toggles the display to skip to the last item
-- parameter debug=<y/n> (default 'n') adds error msg if not a location
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _location();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.location = function(frame)
    local debug = (frame.args.debug or ""):sub(1, 1):lower()
    if debug == "" then debug = "n" end
    local qid = mw.text.trim(frame.args.qid or frame.args[1] or ""):upper()
    if qid == "" then qid=mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then
        if debug ~= "n" then
            return i18n.errors["entity-not-found"]
        else
            return nil
        end
    end
    local first = mw.text.trim(frame.args.first or "")
    local skip = mw.text.trim(frame.args.skip or "")
    return table.concat( _location(qid, first, skip), ", " )
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- checkBlacklist implements a test to check whether a named field is allowed
-- returns true if the field is not blacklisted (i.e. allowed)
-- returns false if the field is blacklisted (i.e. disallowed)
-- {{#if:{{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkBlacklist |name=Joe |suppressfields=Dave; Joe; Fred}} | not blacklisted | blacklisted}}
-- displays "blacklisted"
-- {{#if:{{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkBlacklist |name=Jim |suppressfields=Dave; Joe; Fred}} | not blacklisted | blacklisted}}
-- displays "not blacklisted"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.checkBlacklist = function(frame)
    local blacklist = frame.args.suppressfields or frame.args.spf or ""
    local fieldname = frame.args.name or ""
    if blacklist ~= "" and fieldname ~= "" then
        if blacklist:find(fieldname) then
            return false
        else
            return true
        end
    else
        -- one of the fields is missing: let's call that "not on the list"
        return true
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- emptyor returns nil if its first unnamed argument is just punctuation, whitespace or html tags
-- otherwise it returns the argument unchanged (including leading/trailing space).
-- If the argument may contain "=", then it must be called explicitly:
-- |1=arg
-- (In that case, leading and trailing spaces are trimmed)
-- It finds use in infoboxes where it can replace tests like:
-- {{#if: {{#invoke:WikidatIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}} | <span class="xxx">{{#invoke:WikidatIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}}</span> | }}
-- with a form that uses just a single call to Wikidata:
-- {{#invoke |WikidataIB |emptyor |1= <span class="xxx">{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}}</span> }}
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.emptyor = function(frame)
    local s = frame.args[1] or ""
    if s == "" then return nil end
    local sx = s:gsub("%s", ""):gsub("<[^>]*>", ""):gsub("%p", "")
    if sx == "" then
        return nil
    else
        return s
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- labelorid is a public function to expose the output of labelOrId()
-- Pass the Q-number as |qid= or as an unnamed parameter.
-- It returns the Wikidata label for that entity or the qid if no label exists.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: labelOrId
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.labelorid = function(frame)
    return (labelOrId(frame.args.qid or frame.args[1]))
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getLang returns the MediaWiki language code of the current content.
-- If optional parameter |style=full, it returns the language name.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getLang = function(frame)
    local style = (frame.args.style or ""):lower()
    local langcode = mw.language.getContentLanguage().code
    if style == "full" then
        return mw.language.fetchLanguageName( langcode )
    end
    return langcode
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getItemLangCode takes a qid parameter (using the current page's qid if blank)
-- If the item for that qid has property country (P17) it looks at the first preferred value
-- If the country has an official language (P37), it looks at the first preferred value
-- If that official language has a language code (P424), it returns the first preferred value
-- Otherwise it returns nothing.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getItemLangCode()
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getItemLangCode = function(frame)
    return _getItemLangCode(frame.args.qid or frame.args[1])
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- findLanguage exports the local findLang() function
-- It takes an optional language code and returns, in order of preference:
-- the code if a known language;
-- the user's language, if set;
-- the server's content language.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.findLanguage = function(frame)
    return findLang(frame.args.lang or frame.args[1]).code
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getQid returns the qid, if supplied
-- failing that, the Wikidata entity ID of the "category's main topic (P301)", if it exists
-- failing that, the Wikidata entity ID associated with the current page, if it exists
-- otherwise, nothing
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getQid = function(frame)
    local qid = (frame.args.qid or ""):upper()
    -- check if a qid was passed; if so, return it:
    if qid ~= "" then return qid end
    -- check if there's a "category's main topic (P301)":
    qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
    if qid then
        local prop301 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P301")
        if prop301[1] then
            local mctid = prop301[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
            if mctid then return mctid end
        end
    end
    -- otherwise return the page qid (if any)
    return qid
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- followQid takes four optional parameters: qid, props, list and all.
-- If qid is not given, it uses the qid for the connected page
-- or returns nil if there isn't one.
-- props is a list of properties, separated by punctuation.
-- If props is given, the Wikidata item for the qid is examined for each property in turn.
-- If that property contains a value that is another Wikibase-item, that item's qid is returned,
-- and the search terminates, unless |all=y when all of the qids are returned, separated by spaces.
-- If |list= is set to a template, the qids are passed as arguments to the template.
-- If props is not given, the qid is returned.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam()
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p._followQid = function(args)
    local qid = (args.qid or ""):upper()
    local all = parseParam(args.all, false)
    local list = args.list or ""
    if list == "" then list = nil end
    if qid == "" then
        qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
    end
    if not qid then return nil end
    local out = {}
    local props = (args.props or ""):upper()
    if props ~= "" then
        for p in mw.text.gsplit(props, "%p") do -- split at punctuation and iterate
            p = mw.text.trim(p)
            for i, v in ipairs( mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, p) ) do
                local linkedid = v.mainsnak.datavalue and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
                if linkedid then
                    if all then
                        out[#out+1] = linkedid
                    else
                        return linkedid
                    end -- test for all or just the first one found
                end -- test for value exists for that property
            end -- loop through values of property to follow
        end -- loop through list of properties to follow
    end
    if #out > 0 then
        local ret = ""
        if list then
            ret = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = list, args = out}
        else
            ret = table.concat(out, " ")
        end
        return ret
    else
        return qid
    end
end

p.followQid = function(frame)
    return p._followQid(frame.args)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- globalSiteID returns the globalSiteID for the current wiki
-- e.g. returns "enwiki" for the English Wikipedia, "enwikisource" for English Wikisource, etc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.globalSiteID = function(frame)
    return mw.wikibase.getGlobalSiteId()
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- siteID returns the root of the globalSiteID
-- e.g. "en" for "enwiki", "enwikisource", etc.
-- treats "en-gb" as "en", etc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.siteID = function(frame)
    local txtlang = frame:preprocess( "{{int:lang}}" ) or ""
    -- This deals with specific exceptions: be-tarask -> be-x-old
    if txtlang == "be-tarask" then
        return "be_x_old"
    end
    local pos = txtlang:find("-")
    local ret = ""
    if pos then
        ret = txtlang:sub(1, pos-1)
    else
        ret = txtlang
    end
    return ret
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- projID returns the code used to link to the reader's language's project
-- e.g "en" for [[:en:WikidataIB]]
-- treats "en-gb" as "en", etc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.projID = function(frame)
    local txtlang = frame:preprocess( "{{int:lang}}" ) or ""
    -- This deals with specific exceptions: be-tarask -> be-x-old
    if txtlang == "be-tarask" then
        return "be-x-old"
    end
    local pos = txtlang:find("-")
    local ret = ""
    if pos then
        ret = txtlang:sub(1, pos-1)
    else
        ret = txtlang
    end
    return ret
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- formatNumber formats a number according to the the supplied language code ("|lang=")
-- or the default language if not supplied.
-- The number is the first unnamed parameter or "|num="
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang()
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.formatNumber = function(frame)
    local lang
    local num = tonumber(frame.args[1] or frame.args.num) or 0
    lang = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    return lang:formatNum( num )
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- examine dumps the property (the unnamed parameter or pid)
-- from the item given by the parameter 'qid' (or the other unnamed parameter)
-- or from the item corresponding to the current page if qid is not supplied.
-- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |pid=P26 |qid=Q42}}
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |P26 |Q42}} or any combination of these
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |P26}} for the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.examine = function( frame )
    local args
    if frame.args[1] or frame.args.pid or frame.args.qid then
        args = frame.args
    else
        args = frame:getParent().args
    end
    local par = {}
    local pid = (args.pid or ""):upper()
    local qid = (args.qid or ""):upper()
    par[1] = mw.text.trim( args[1] or "" ):upper()
    par[2] = mw.text.trim( args[2] or "" ):upper()
    table.sort(par)
    if par[2]:sub(1,1) == "P" then par[1], par[2] = par[2], par[1] end
    if pid == "" then pid = par[1] end
    if qid == "" then qid = par[2] end
    local q1 = qid:sub(1,1)
    if pid:sub(1,1) ~= "P" then return "No property supplied" end
    if q1 ~= "Q" and q1 ~= "M" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then return "No item for this page" end
    return "<pre>" .. mw.dumpObject( mw.wikibase.getAllStatements( qid, pid ) ) .. "</pre>"
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- checkvalue looks for 'val' as a wikibase-item value of a property (the unnamed parameter or pid)
-- from the item given by the parameter 'qid'
-- or from the Wikidata item associated with the current page if qid is not supplied.
-- It only checks ranks that are requested (preferred and normal by default)
-- If property is not supplied, then P31 (instance of) is assumed.
-- It returns val if found or nothing if not found.
-- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |pid=P31 |qid=Q42}}
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |P31 |qid=Q42}}
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |qid=Q42}}
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |P31}} for the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.checkvalue = function( frame )
    local args
    if frame.args.val then
        args = frame.args
    else
        args = frame:getParent().args
    end
    local val = args.val
    if not val then return nil end
    local pid = mw.text.trim(args.pid or args[1] or "P31"):upper()
    local qid = (args.qid or ""):upper()
    if pid:sub(1,1) ~= "P" then return nil end
    if qid:sub(1,1) ~= "Q" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then return nil end
    local ranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    local stats = {}
    if ranks.b then
        stats = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, pid)
    else
        stats = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements( qid, pid )
    end
    if not stats[1] then return nil end
    if stats[1].mainsnak.datatype == "wikibase-item" then
        for k, v in pairs( stats ) do
            local ms = v.mainsnak
            if ranks[v.rank:sub(1,1)] and ms.snaktype == "value" and ms.datavalue.value.id == val then
                return val
            end
        end
    end
    return nil
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- url2 takes a parameter url= that is a proper url and formats it for use in an infobox.
-- If no parameter is supplied, it returns nothing.
-- This is the equivalent of Template:URL
-- but it keeps the "edit at Wikidata" pen icon out of the microformat.
-- Usually it will take its url parameter directly from a Wikidata call:
-- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |url2 |url={{wdib |P856 |qid=Q23317 |fwd=ALL |osd=no}} }}
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.url2 = function(frame)
    local txt = frame.args.url or ""
    if txt == "" then return nil end
    -- extract any icon
    local url, icon = txt:match("(.+)&nbsp;(.+)")
    -- make sure there's at least a space at the end
    url = (url or txt) .. " "
    icon = icon or ""
    -- extract any protocol like https://
    local prot = url:match("(https*://).+[ \"\']")
    -- extract address
    local addr = ""
    if prot then
        addr = url:match("https*://(.+)[ \"\']") or " "
    else
        prot = "//"
        addr = url:match("[^%p%s]+%.(.+)[ \"\']") or " "
    end
    -- strip trailing / from end of domain-only url and add <wbr/> before . and /
    local disp, n = addr:gsub( "^([^/]+)/$", "%1" ):gsub("%/", "<wbr/>/"):gsub("%.", "<wbr/>.")
    return '<span class="url">[' .. prot .. addr .. " " .. disp .. "]</span>&nbsp;" .. icon
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getWebsite fetches the Official website (P856) and formats it for use in an infobox.
-- This is similar to Template:Official website but with a url displayed,
-- and it adds the "edit at Wikidata" pen icon beyond the microformat if enabled.
-- A local value will override the Wikidata value. "NONE" returns nothing.
-- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getWebsite |qid= |noicon= |lang= |url= }}
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang(); parseParam();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getWebsite = function(frame)
    local url = frame.args.url or ""
    if url:upper() == "NONE" then return nil end

    local qid = frame.args.qid or ""
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then return nil end

    local urls = {}
    local quals = {}
    if url == "" then
        local prop856 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P856")
        for k, v in pairs(prop856) do
            if v.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
                urls[#urls+1] = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value
                if v.qualifiers and v.qualifiers["P1065"] then
                     -- just take the first archive url (P1065)
                    local au = v.qualifiers["P1065"][1]
                    if au.snaktype == "value" then
                        quals[#urls] = au.datavalue.value
                    end -- test for archive url having a value
                end -- test for qualifers
            end -- test for website having a value
        end -- loop through website(s)
    else
        urls[1] = url
    end
    if #urls == 0 then return nil end

    local out = {}
    for i, u in ipairs(urls) do
        local link = quals[i] or u
        local prot, addr = u:match("(http[s]*://)(.+)")
        addr = addr or u
        local disp, n = addr:gsub("%.", "<wbr/>%.")
        out[#out+1] = '<span class="url">[' .. link .. " " .. disp .. "]</span>"
    end

    local langcode = findLang(frame.args.lang).code
    local noicon = parseParam(frame.args.noicon, false)
    if url == "" and not noicon then
        out[#out] = out[#out] .. createicon(langcode, qid, "P856")
    end

    local ret = ""
    if #out > 1 then
        ret = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "ubl", args = out}
    else
        ret = out[1]
    end

    return ret
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAllLabels fetches the set of labels and formats it for display as wikitext.
-- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAllLabels = function(frame)
    local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}

    local qid = args.qid or ""
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(qid) then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end

    local labels = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid).labels
    if not labels then return i18n["labels-not-found"] end

    local out = {}
    for k, v in pairs(labels) do
        out[#out+1] = v.value .. " (" .. v.language .. ")"
    end

    return table.concat(out, "; ")
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAllDescriptions fetches the set of descriptions and formats it for display as wikitext.
-- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAllDescriptions = function(frame)
    local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}

    local qid = args.qid or ""
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(qid) then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end

    local descriptions = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid).descriptions
    if not descriptions then return i18n["descriptions-not-found"] end

    local out = {}
    for k, v in pairs(descriptions) do
        out[#out+1] = v.value .. " (" .. v.language .. ")"
    end

    return table.concat(out, "; ")
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAllAliases fetches the set of aliases and formats it for display as wikitext.
-- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAllAliases = function(frame)
    local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}

    local qid = args.qid or ""
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(qid) then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end

    local aliases = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid).aliases
    if not aliases then return i18n["aliases-not-found"] end

    local out = {}
    for k1, v1 in pairs(aliases) do
        local lang = v1[1].language
        local val = {}
        for k1, v2 in ipairs(v1) do
            val[#val+1] = v2.value
        end
        out[#out+1] = table.concat(val, ", ") .. " (" .. lang .. ")"
    end

    return table.concat(out, "; ")
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- showNoLinks displays the article titles that should not be linked.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.showNoLinks = function(frame)
    local out = {}
    for k, v in pairs(donotlink) do
        out[#out+1] = k
    end
    table.sort( out )
    return table.concat(out, "; ")
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- checkValidity checks whether the first unnamed parameter represents a valid entity-id,
-- that is, something like Q1235 or P123.
-- It returns the strings "true" or "false".
-- Change false to nil to return "true" or "" (easier to test with #if:).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
function p.checkValidity(frame)
    local id = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
    if mw.wikibase.isValidEntityId(id) then
        return true
    else
        return false
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getEntityFromTitle returns the Entity-ID (Q-number) for a given title.
-- Modification of Module:ResolveEntityId
-- The title is the first unnamed parameter.
-- The site parameter determines the site/language for the title. Defaults to current wiki.
-- The showdab parameter determines whether dab pages should return the Q-number or nil. Defaults to true.
-- Returns the Q-number or nil if it does not exist.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
function p.getEntityFromTitle(frame)
    local args=frame.args
    if not args[1] then args=frame:getParent().args end
    if not args[1] then return nil end
    local title = mw.text.trim(args[1])
    local site = args.site or ""
    local showdab = parseParam(args.showdab, true)
    local qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForTitle(title, site)
    if qid then
        local prop31 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P31")[1]
        if not showdab and prop31 and prop31.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == "Q4167410" then
            return nil
        else
            return qid
        end
    end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getDatePrecision returns the number representing the precision of the first best date value
-- for the given property.
-- It takes the qid and property ID
-- The meanings are given at https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Wikibase/DataModel#Dates_and_times
-- 0 = 1 billion years .. 6 = millennium, 7 = century, 8 = decade, 9 = year, 10 = month, 11 = day
-- Returns 0 (or the second unnamed parameter) if the Wikidata does not exist.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; sourced;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
function p.getDatePrecision(frame)
    local args=frame.args
    if not args[1] then args=frame:getParent().args end
    local default = tonumber(args[2] or args.default) or 0
    local prop = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    if prop == "" then return default end
    local qid = args.qid or ""
    if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    if not qid then return default end
    local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    local stat = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, prop)
    for i, v in ipairs(stat) do
        local prec = (onlysrc == false or sourced(v))
            and v.mainsnak.datavalue
            and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value
            and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.precision
        if prec then return prec end
    end
    return default
end


return p


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- List of exported functions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--[[
_getValue
getValue
getPreferredValue
getCoords
getQualifierValue
getSumOfParts
getValueByQual
getValueByLang
getValueByRefSource
getPropertyIDs
getQualifierIDs
getPropOfProp
getAwardCat
getIntersectCat
getGlobe
getCommonsLink
getSiteLink
getLink
getLabel
label
getAT
getDescription
getAliases
pageId
formatDate
location
checkBlacklist
emptyor
labelorid
getLang
getItemLangCode
findLanguage
getQID
followQid
globalSiteID
siteID
projID
formatNumber
examine
checkvalue
url2
getWebsite
getAllLabels
getAllDescriptions
getAllAliases
showNoLinks
checkValidity
getEntityFromTitle
getDatePrecision
--]]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------