for their discovery and study of the magnetorotational instability, and for demonstrating that this instability leads to turbulence and is a viable mechanism for angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks.
for their contributions to the measurements of features in the large-scale structure of galaxies used to constrain the cosmological model including baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift-space distortions.
for his profound contributions to modern mathematical statistics and in particular the development of optimal algorithms for statistical estimation in the presence of noise and of efficient techniques for sparse representation and recovery in large data-sets.
a The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column.
b The information in the country column is according to shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.
c The rationale for each award is quoted (not always in full) from shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation.
d Two prizes were awarded for the life science and medicine category in 2004: Stanley N. Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer and Yuet-Wai Kan jointly received one of the prizes (half went to Cohen and Boyer; the other half went to Kan). Richard Doll received the other prize.
e Half of the 2008 life science and medicine prize went to Keith H. S. Campbell and Ian Wilmut; the other half went to Shinya Yamanaka.