Soneto 36

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Soneto 36

Let me confess that we two must be twain,
Although our undivided loves are one:
So shall those blots that do with me remain,
Without thy help, by me be borne alone.
In our two loves there is but one respect,
Though in our lives a separable spite,
Which though it alter not love's sole effect,
Yet doth it steal sweet hours from love's delight.
I may not evermore acknowledge thee,
Lest my bewailed guilt should do thee shame,
Nor thou with public kindness honour me,
Unless thou take that honour from thy name:
But do not so, I love thee in such sort,
As thou being mine, mine is thy good report.

–William Shakespeare

Soneto 36 foi escrito por William Shakespeare e faz parte dos seus 154 sonetos. É um dos diversos sonetos endereçados a um jovem do sexo masculino.

Traduções[editar | editar código-fonte]

Na tradução de Thereza Christina ,

Embora nossos amores indivisos sejam um;
Da mesma forma que as manchas que ficam comigo,
Sem teu auxílio, para que eu as suporte sozinho.
Em nossos amores, há o mesmo respeito,
Embora em nossas vidas o mal nos separe,
Que, mesmo sem alterar os efeitos únicos do amor,
Consegue subtrair doces horas do amoroso prazer.
Eu jamais poderia te reconhecer,
A menos que minha culpa te envergonhe;
Nem tu publicamente com gentilezas me honrarias,
A menos que tire essa honra de teu nome.
Mas não faças isso; amo-te de tal modo,
Pois, sendo minha, de ti só direi o bem.[1]

History[editar | editar código-fonte]

Sonnet 36 is just one of The Sonnets out of 154 that were written. There are 120 sonnets devoted to an unknown young man, twenty-eight sonnets are written to a young lady, and the rest are allegorical.[2] Sonnet 36 falls in the category of love and beauty along with other sonnets such as 29, 37, and many others according to Claes Schaar.[3]

Analysis of relationship between speaker and young man[editar | editar código-fonte]

Shakespeare most likely wrote the sonnets that were meant for the young man over a four or five year period.[4] There is speculation that the young man Shakespeare is addressing may be named William Hughs or Hews. While Butler raises the question of Shakespeare’s homosexuality, other critics such as Wilde refute this claim and maintain Shakespeare had an innocent relationship with the boy. However, no reputable evidence for this theory has been found. Throughout his sonnets, Shakespeare addresses the young man’s physical beauty as well as his internal beauty.[5] In this particular sonnet, Shakespeare admits his love for the young man, but he states that he is not able to publicly acknowledge his love due to the shame that might result. According to Lord Alfred Douglas, there seems to be a contradiction between Sonnet 35 and Sonnet 36, because while he rebukes the young man in the first sonnet, he admits his own guilt in the second.[6] Butler proposed that the young man in this poem was guilty of some public offense. However, Alfred Douglas believes that line 10 of the poem completely exonerates the young man of such an offense, because Shakespeare admits his own guilt.[6]

General analysis[editar | editar código-fonte]

Sonnet 36 represents the speaker’s acceptance that he and his lover will no longer be able to be together. The two seem to both love each other, but due to some unknown incident (most likely caused by the younger lover and not the speaker) they cannot be together. Because of this incident, embarrassment would be brought to both (especially the speaker) if they were seen together in public. The message of the sonnet is best summed up when the speaker says, “I may not ever-more acknowledge thee, Lest my bewailed guilt should do thee shame,” (lines 9-10) implying that the young lover should not bring shame to him, just as he would not want to bring shame to the young lover.[7]

Criticism[editar | editar código-fonte]

Relationship between sonnet 36 and other sonnets[editar | editar código-fonte]

The location of where Sonnet 36 properly fits in the sequence of Shakespeare's sonnets has been widely debated. Claes Schaar groups the sonnets according to how similar they are. Sonnet 36 is grouped with Sonnet 33 through Sonnet 35. Although there is no apparent connection between Sonnet 36 and 37, there is an apparent link between the topic in 35 and the first line of 36.[8] Helen Vendler agrees with Schaar contending that Sonnets 37 and 38 seem to not fit in place between Sonnets 36 and 39. He claims Sonnet 36 and 39 are often linked because they share three sets of rhymes: me/thee, one/alone, and twain/remain. Sonnets 36 and 39 both contain the word "undivided" and conern a thematic commonality concerning the separation of lovers. Sonnets 37 and 38 are linked with Sonnet 6 in both material and the use of the phrase "ten times" thus, illustrating discontinuity among the sonnets. Sonnet 36 is also strongly linked with Sonnet 96 in that the rhyming couplet is identical, "But do not so, I love thee in such sort, As thou being mine, mine is thy good report." The theme of depriving oneself of honor for the other is also consistent between the two. These discrepancies with thematic links and common word usage have given legitimacy to the argument that the Sonnets may not be in a finalized order.[9] It is argued that Shakespeare provided room among his clearly written sonnets for some of his earlier and less refined sonnets. Therefore, the order of the sonnets may not be the polished repertoire Shakespeare had intended.[9]

Biblical references[editar | editar código-fonte]

Blackmore Evans suggested that Sonnet 36 was influenced by Ephesians 5:25-33, "25Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her 26to make her holy, cleansing her by the washing with water through the word, 27and to present her to himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish, but holy and blameless. 28In this same way, husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. 29After all, no one ever hated his own body, but he feeds and cares for it, just as Christ does the church— 30for we are members of his body. 31'For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.' 32This is a profound mystery—but I am talking about Christ and the church. 33However, each one of you also must love his wife as he loves himself, and the wife must respect her husband." Most particularly, verses 31 and 32 that discuss the mystery of the two, husband and wife, becoming "one flesh" in marriage. This link is most strongly exemplified in the first two lines of Sonnet 36, "Let me confess that we two must be twain, Although our undivided loves are one:"[7] Stephen Booth adds that Ephesians 5 was a regular source of inspiration for Shakespeare. There is also evidence of Ephesians 5 in Shakespeares, Henry IV, Part 1. Booth suggests that the "blots" in line 3 of Sonnet 36 may be an allusion to Eph 5:27, "...without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish..." There is also a parallel in motivation between the speaker's self-sacrifice in accepting separation for his lover's sake and Christ's marriage to the church.[10]

Other references[editar | editar código-fonte]

Line 12 of Sonnet 36 suggests that Shakespeare may be addressing a person of nobility. The correct address of such a person was, "Right honourable". Such parallels in dedications can be found in Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece.[7]

Referências[editar | editar código-fonte]

  1. Thereza Christina Rocque da Motta (tradutora), SHAKESPEARE, William. 154 Sonetos. Em Comemoraçao Aos 400 Anos Da 1ª Ediçao 1609-2009. Editora Ibis Libris, 1ª edição, 2009. ISBN 8578230264
  2. Douglas (1933). p. 17.
  3. Schaar (1962). p. 187.
  4. Hubler (1952). p. 78.
  5. Douglas (1933). pp. 16-17, 19.
  6. a b Douglas (1933). pp. 90-91.
  7. a b c Evans (2006).
  8. Schaar (1962)
  9. a b Erro de citação: Código <ref> inválido; não foi fornecido texto para as refs de nome Vendler
  10. Booth (1977).
  • Alden, Raymond. The Sonnets of Shakespeare, with Variorum Reading and Commentary. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1916.
  • Baldwin, T. W. On the Literary Genetics of Shakspeare's Sonnets. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1950.
  • Booth, Stephen. Shakespeare's Sonnets. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
  • Dowden, Edward. Shakespeare's Sonnets. London, 1881.
  • Hubler, Edwin. The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.
  • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt.
  • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Engle, Lars (2007). William Empson and the Sonnets: A Companion to Shakespeare's Sonnets. Blackwell Limited, Malden.
  • Evans, G. Blakemore, Anthony Hecht, (1996). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Hammond, Paul (2002). Figuring Sex Between Men from Shakespeare to Rochester. Clarendon, New York.
  • Hubler, Edwin (1952). The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Kerrigan, John (1987). Shakespeare's Sonnets. Penguin, New York.
  • Knights, L. C. (1967). Shakespeare's Sonnets: Elizabethan Poetry. Paul Alpers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Lopez, Jeremy (2005). Sonnet 35. Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare. pp. 1136-1140.
  • Matz, Robert (2008). The World of Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Introduction. Jefferson, N.C., McFarland & Co..
  • Schoenfeldt, Michael (2007). The Sonnets: The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare’s Poetry. Patrick Cheney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Tyler, Thomas (1989). Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London D. Nutt.
  • Vendler, Helen (1997). The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Ligações externas[editar | editar código-fonte]