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The State of India (em português: Estado da Índia) - also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply the Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.

The first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, established his headquarters in Cochin (Cochim, Kochi). Subsequent Portuguese governors were not always of viceroy rank. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa. Until the 18th Century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Macau, Solor and Timor, and its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar coast of present-day India.

At the time of the British Indian Empire's dissolution in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on modern-day India's western coast, sometimes referred to collectively as Goa: These were Goa; Daman (Portuguese: Damão) which included the inland enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and Diu. Portugal lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, and finally the rest of the overseas territory in December 1961, when it was taken by India after military action. In spite of this, Portugal only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime.

Early history[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ver artigo principal: Portuguese India Armadas

A viagem marco de Vasco da Gama[editar | editar código-fonte]

The first Portuguese encounter with the subcontinent was on 20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. Anchored off the coast of Calicut, the Portuguese invited native fishermen on board and immediately brought some Indian items. One Portuguese accompanied the fishermen to the port and met with a Tunisian Muslim. On the advice of this man, Gama sent a couple of his men to Ponnani to meet with ruler of Calicut, the Zamorin. Over the objections of Arab merchants, Gama managed to secure a letter of concession for trading rights from the Zamorin, Calicut's Hindu ruler. But, the Portuguese were unable to pay the prescribed customs duties and price of his goods in gold.

Later Calicut officials temporarily detained Gama's Portuguese agents as security for payment. This, however, annoyed Gama, who carried a few natives and sixteen fishermen with him by force.[1]

Nevertheless, Gama's expedition was successful beyond all reasonable expectation, bringing in cargo that was sixty times the cost of the expedition.

Estabelecimento da primeira feitoria portuguesa[editar | editar código-fonte]

Pedro Álvares Cabral sailed to India, marking the arrival of Europeans to Brazil on the way, to trade for pepper and other spices, negotiating and establishing a factory at Calicut, where he arrived on 13 September 1500. Matters worsened when the Portuguese factory at Calicut was attacked by surprise by the locals, resulting in the death of more than fifty Portuguese. Cabral was outraged by the attack on the factory and seized ten Arab merchant ships anchored in the harbour, killing about six hundred of their crew and confiscating their cargo before burning the ships. Cabral also ordered his ships to bombard Calicut for an entire day in retaliation for the violation of the agreement. In Cochin and Cannanore Cabral succeeded in making advantageous treaties with the local rulers. Cabral started the return voyage on 16 January 1501 and arrived in Portugal with only 4 of 13 ships on 23 June 1501.

The Portuguese built the Pulicat fort in 1502, with the help of the Vijayanagar ruler.Predefinição:What

Vasco da Gama sailed to India for a second time with 15 ships and 800 men, arriving at Calicut on 30 October 1502, where the ruler was willing to sign a treaty. Gama this time made a call to expel all Muslims (Arabs) from Calicut which was vehemently turned down. He bombarded the city and captured several rice vessels.[2] He returned to Portugal in September 1503.

Formação de Estado da Índia (1505-1515)[editar | editar código-fonte]

Francisco de Almeida, e a batalha de Diu[editar | editar código-fonte]

On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of India, on the condition that he would set up four forts on the southwestern Indian coast: at Anjediva Island, Cannanore, Cochin and Quilon.[3] Francisco de Almeida left Portugal with a fleet of 22 vessels with 1,500 men.[3]

On 13 September, Francisco de Almeida reached Anjadip Island, where he immediately started the construction of Fort Anjediva.[3] On 23 October, with the permission of the friendly ruler of Cannanore, he started building St. Angelo Fort at Cannanore, leaving Lourenço de Brito in charge with 150 men and two ships.[3]

Francisco de Almeida then reached Cochin in 31 October 1505 with only 8 vessels left.[3] There he learned that the Portuguese traders at Quilon had been killed. He decided to send his son Lourenço de Almeida with 6 ships, who destroyed 27 Calicut vessels in the harbour of Quilon.[3] Almeida took up residence in Cochin. He strengthened the Portuguese fortifications of Fort Manuel on Cochin.

The Zamorin prepared a large fleet of 200 ships to oppose the Portuguese, but in March 1506 Lourenço de Almeida (son of Francisco de Almeida) was victorious in a sea battle at the entrance to the harbour of Cannanore, the Battle of Cannanore, an important setback for the fleet of the Zamorin. Thereupon Lourenço de Almeida explored the coastal waters southwards to Colombo, in what is now Sri Lanka. In Cannanore, however, a new ruler, hostile to the Portuguese and friendly with the Zamorin, attacked the Portuguese garrison, leading to the Siege of Cannanore.

In 1507 Almeida's mission was strengthened by the arrival of Tristão da Cunha's squadron. Afonso de Albuquerque's squadron had, however, split from that of Cunha off East Africa and was independently conquering territories in the Persian Gulf to the west.

In March 1508 a Portuguese squadron under command of Lourenço de Almeida was attacked by a combined Mameluk Egyptian and Gujarat Sultanate fleet at Chaul and Dabul respectively, led by admirals Mirocem and Meliqueaz in the Battle of Chaul. Lourenço de Almeida lost his life after a fierce fight in this battle. Mamluk-Indian resistance was, however, to be decisively defeated at the Battle of Diu.

As descargas Afonso de Albuquerque[editar | editar código-fonte]

In the year 1509, Afonso de Albuquerque was appointed the second governor of the Portuguese possessions in the East. A new fleet under Marshal Fernão Coutinho arrived with specific instructions to destroy the power of Zamorin's of Calicut. The Zamorin's palace was captured and destroyed and the city was set on fire. The king's forces rallied to kill Coutinho and wound Albuquerque. Albuquerque relented, and entered into a treaty with the Zamorin in 1513 to protect Portuguese interests in Malabar. Hostilities were renewed when the Portuguese attempted to assassinate the Zamorin sometime between 1515 and 1518. In 1510, Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the Bijapur sultans with the help of Timayya, on behalf of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa). The Southern Province, also known simply as Goa, was the headquarters of Portuguese India, and seat of the Portuguese viceroy who governed the Portuguese possessions in Asia.

There were Portuguese settlements in and around Mylapore. The Luz Church in Mylapore, Madras (Chennai) was the first church that the Portuguese built in Madras in 1516. Later in 1522, the São Tomé church was built on the ruins of the original Kapaleeswarar Temple that was destroyed by the Portuguese.

The Portuguese acquired several territories from the Sultans of Gujarat: Daman (occupied 1531, formally ceded 1539); Salsette, Bombay, and Baçaim (occupied 1534); and Diu (ceded 1535).

Coat of Arms of Portuguese India from the 20th century

These possessions became the Northern Province of Portuguese India, which extended almost 100 km along the coast from Daman to Chaul, and in places 30–50 km inland. The province was ruled from the fortress-town of Baçaim.

In 1526, under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, the Portuguese took possession of Mangalore. The territory included parts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi in Karnataka state, and Kasaragod in Kerala state. (South Canara). Mangalore was named the islands El Padron de Santa Maria; later came to be known as St Mary's Islands. In 1640, the Keladi Nayaka kingdom defeated the Portuguese.

From the 16th century, the Portuguese meddled in the church affairs of the Syrian Christians of Malabar. The Udayamperoor Synod (1599) was a major attempt by the Portuguese Archbishop Menezes to Latinize the Syrian rite. Later in 1653, Coonan Cross Oath led to the division of the local church into Syrian Catholics and Syrian Christians (Jacobites).

Atividade diplomática Afonso de Albuquerque[editar | editar código-fonte]

completa era florescente (1515-1580) =[editar | editar código-fonte]

Instalação de superioridade e portugueses primeiros problemas[editar | editar código-fonte]

ameaça otomana e lutando Mápilleji[editar | editar código-fonte]

A influência Português no Japão, Ceilão, e da costa Leste Africano[editar | editar código-fonte]

O declínio do poder Português (1580-1669): Guerra global[editar | editar código-fonte]

Bombay (present day Mumbai) was given to Britain in 1661 as part of the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza's dowry to Charles II of England. Most of the Northern Province was lost to the Marathas of the Maratha Empire in 1739 when the Maratha General Chimnaji Appa defeated the Portuguese. Later Portugal acquired Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1779.

Portuguese Indian coin from 1799

In 1843 the capital was shifted to Panjim, then renamed "Nova Goa", when it officially became the administrative seat of Portuguese India, replacing the city of Velha Goa (now Old Goa), although the Viceroys lived there already since 1 December 1759. Before moving to the city, the viceroy remodelled the fortress of Adil Khan, transforming it into a palace.

The Portuguese also shipped over many Orfãs del Rei to Portuguese colonies in the Indian peninsula, Goa in particular. Orfãs del Rei literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with high status.

Thus there are Portuguese footprints all over the western and eastern coasts of the Indian peninsula, though Goa became the capital of Portuguese Goa from 1530 onwards until the annexation of Goa proper and the entire Estado da Índia Portuguesa, and its merger with the Indian Union in 1961.


Causas Português-Holandês[editar | editar código-fonte]

Rivalidade no Oceano Índico[editar | editar código-fonte]

O fim da hegemonia Português na Ásia[editar | editar código-fonte]

reorganização, estabilização e terminação (1669-1961)[editar | editar código-fonte]

Conversão de Estado da Índia em Território miniatura[editar | editar código-fonte]

Rescisão do Estado Português da Índia[editar | editar código-fonte]

Administração, sociedade e negócios[editar | editar código-fonte]

Post British Raj[editar | editar código-fonte]

Predefinição:Colonial India After India's independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to accede to India's request to relinquish control of its Indian possessions.

On 24 July 1954 an organisation called "The United Front of Goans" took control of the enclave of Dadra. The remaining territory of Nagar Haveli was seized by the Azad Gomantak Dal on 2 August 1954.[4] The decision given by the International Court of Justice at The Hague, regarding access to Dadra and Nagar Haveli, was an impasse.[5]

Portuguese India in the 19th and 20th centuries

From 1954, peaceful Satyagrahis attempts from outside Goa at forcing the Portuguese to leave Goa were brutally suppressed.[6] Many revolts were quelled by the use of force and leaders eliminated or jailed. As a result, India closed its consulate (which had operated in Panjim since 1947) and imposed an economic embargo against the territories of Portuguese Goa. The Indian Government adopted a "wait and watch" attitude from 1955 to 1961 with numerous representations to the Portuguese Salazar government and attempts to highlight the issue before the international community.[7]

Portuguese and other European settlements in India

To facilitate the transport of people and goods to and from the Indian enclaves, the Portuguese established an airline, Transportes Aéreos da Índia Portuguesa, and airports at Goa, Daman and Diu.

Eventually, in December 1961, India militarily invaded Goa, Daman and Diu, where the Portuguese put up a futile fight.[8][9] Portuguese armed forces had been instructed to either defeat the invaders or die. Only meager resistance was offered due to the Portuguese army's poor firepower and size (only 3,300 men), against a fully armed Indian force of over 30,000 with full air and naval support.[10][11] The Governor of Portuguese India signed the Instrument of Surrender[12] on 19 December 1961, ending 450 years of Portuguese rule in India.

Post-annexation[editar | editar código-fonte]

Status of the new territories[editar | editar código-fonte]

Dadra and Nagar Haveli existed as a de facto independent entity from its independence in 1954 until its merger with the Republic of India in 1961.

Following the annexation of Goa, Daman and Diu, the new territories became Union Territories within the Indian Union as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Goa, Daman and Diu. Maj. Gen. K. P. Candeth was declared as military governor of Goa, Daman and Diu. Goa's first general elections were held in 1963.

In 1967 a referendum was conducted where voters decided whether to merge Goa into the neighbouring state of Maharashtra. The anti-merger faction won, but full statehood was not conferred immediately. On 30 May 1987 Goa became the 25th state of the Indian Union. Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu were separated from Goa and they continue to be administered as Union Territories.

The most drastic changes in Portuguese India after 1961 were the introduction of democratic elections, as well as the replacement of Portuguese with English as the general language of government and education. However the Indians allowed certain Portuguese institutions to continue unchanged. Amongst these were the land ownership system of the comunidade, where land was held by the community and was then leased out to individuals. The Indian government left the Portuguese civil code unchanged in Goa, with the result that Goa today remains the only state in India with a common civil code that does not depend on religion.

Citizenship[editar | editar código-fonte]

The Citizenship Act of 1955 granted the government of India the authority to define citizenship in the Indian union. In exercise of its powers, the government passed the Goa, Daman and Diu (Citizenship) Order, 1962 on 28 March 1962 conferring Indian citizenship on all persons born on or before 20 December 1961 in Goa, Daman and Diu.[13]

Indo-Portuguese relations[editar | editar código-fonte]

The Salazar regime in Portugal refused to recognise the Republic of India's sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly until 1974. Following the Carnation Revolution that year, the new government in Lisbon restored diplomatic relations with India, and recognised Indian sovereignty over Goa, Daman and Diu. Portugal continued to give the citizens of Portuguese India automatic citizenship.

Postal history[editar | editar código-fonte]

Early postal history of the colony is obscure, but regular mail is known to have been exchanged with Lisbon from 1825 on. Portugal had a postal convention with Great Britain, so much mail was probably routed through Bombay and carried on British packets. Portuguese postmarks are known from 1854, when a post office was opened in Goa.

The last regular issue for Portuguese India was on 25 June 1960, for the 500th anniversary of the death of Prince Henry the Navigator. Stamps of India were first used 29 December 1961, although the old stamps were accepted until 5 January 1962. Portugal continued to issue stamps for the lost colony but none were offered for sale in the colony's post offices, so they are not considered valid stamps.

Dual franking was tolerated from 22 December 1961 until 4 January 1962. Colonial (Portuguese) postmarks were tolerated until May 1962.

See also[editar | editar código-fonte]

Portal A Wikipédia tem os portais:

References[editar | editar código-fonte]

Referências[editar | editar código-fonte]

c↑ Soares, Torquato de Sousa: Algumas Observações sobre a Política Marroquina da Monarquia Portuguesa, in: Revista Portuguesa de História, sv. X, Coimbra 1962, s. 526–528

c↑ Unali, Anna: Ceuta 1415. Los Orígenes de la Expansión Europea en África, Ceuta 2004, s. 206

c↑ Santos, Domingos Maurício Gomes dos: D. Duarte e as Responsabilidades de Tanger (1433–1438), Lisboa 1960, s. 69

c↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: Estado da Índia, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 388

c↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: D. Manuel, a Índia e o Brasil, in: Revista de História, 2009, č. 161, s. 18

c↑ Costa, João Paulo Oliveira e; Rodrigues, Victor Luís Gaspar: Portugal y Oriente: El Proyecto Indiano del Rey Juan, Madrid 1992, s. 38; Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: O projecto imperial joanino, in: Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: De Ceuta a Timor, Lisboa 1998, s. 149–167

c↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: A política oriental de D. Manuel I e suas contracorrentes, in: Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: De Ceuta a Timor, Lisboa 1998, s. 192

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, Lisboa 1977, s. 61

↑ Sudhakarahn, P. P.: Portuguese relations of the chiefs Kerala, in: P. J. Cherian (Ed.): Perspectives on Kerala history: Kerala & the coming of the Europeans (1500–1800)

c↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe: Calecute, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 162

c↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe: A política oriental de D. Manuel I e suas contracorrentes, s. 189–206

c↑ Flores, Jorge Manuel: Malabar, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 654

↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe: Estrutura política e administrativa do Estado da Índia no século XVI, in: II Seminário Internacional sobre a História Indo-Portuguesa, Lisboa 1985, s. 524

↑ Malekandathil, Pius: Portuguese Cochin and the Maritime Trade of India 1500–1663, New Dilli 2002, s. 11

↑ Skočit nahoru k: a b Thomaz, Luís Filipe: Calecute, s. 165

↑ Monteiro, Saturnino: Batalhas e Combates da Marinha Portuguesa, Portugalské námořní bitvy

↑ Pearson, Michael Nayron: Os portugueses na Índia, Lisboa 1990, s. 72

c↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: A política oriental de D. Manuel I e suas contracorrentes, s. 194

c↑ Skočit nahoru k: a b Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 49

↑ Diffie, Bailey W. a Winius, George Davison: A fundação do império português 1415–1580, sv. II, Lisboa 1993, s. 19–20

↑ Mathew, K. S. (ed.): Maritime Malabar and the Europeans 1500–1962, New Delhi 2003, s. 203

↑ Diffie, Bailey W. a Winius, George Davison: c. d., sv. II, s. 20

↑ Diffie, Bailey W. a Winius, George Davison: c. d., sv. II, s. 24–29

c↑ Amado, Maria Teresa: D. Francisco de Almeida, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 53

c↑ Huyghovi, Edith a François-Bernard: Lovci koření na cestě do bájné Indie, Praha 1997, s. 140

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 69

c↑ Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 102–104

c↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: A política oriental de D. Manuel I e suas contracorrentes, s. 196–197

↑ Trickett, P.: Beyond Capricorn. How Portuguese adventurers discovered and mapped Australia and New Zealand 250 years before Captain Cook, Adelaide 2007

↑ Schreiber, Hermann: Mořeplavci, cestovatelé, objevitelé. 4000 let objevných cest, Praha 1974, s. 292

↑ Skočit nahoru k: a b c

c Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 75

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 72–73

c↑ Flores, Jorge Manuel: Malabar, s. 655–656

↑ Skočit nahoru k: a b Thomaz, Luís Filipe: Calecute, s. 166

c↑ Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 66–69

c↑ Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 67–68

↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: A Note on Portuguese Reactions to the Revival of the Red Sea Spice Trade and the Rise of Atjeh 1540–1600, in: Journal of Southeast Asian History, 1969, s. 415–428

↑ Malekandathil, Pius: c. d., s. 132

c↑ Mathew, K. S.: History of the Portuguese Navigation in India, New Delhi 1988, s. 168

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 79

c↑ Flores, Jorge Manuel: Malabar, c. d., s. 658

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 83–84

c↑ Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 91

↑ Codrington, Humphrey William: A short history of Ceylon, 1970, s. 98–114

↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: A Portuguese Eldorado: Monomotapa and Mozambique, in: Geographical Magazine, sv. 33, č. 5, London 1960, s. 285

↑ Newitt, Malyn: História de Moçambique, Lisboa 1997, s. 203–224

c↑ Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 59

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 80

c↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: Estado da Índia, s. 392

↑ Disney, Anthony R.: A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire, sv. 2: The Portuguese Empire, New York 2009, s. 151–152; Subrahmanyam, Sanjay: O Império Asiático Português 1500–1700, Lisboa 1996, s. 200–202;

Subrahmanyam, Sanjay; Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: Evolution of Empire: The Portuguese in the Indian Ocean during the sixteenth century, in: Tracy, James D. (org.): The Political Economy of Merchant Empires, Cambridge, New York 1991, s. 308

↑ Veen, Ernst van: Decay or Defeat? An Inquiry into the Portuguese Decline in Asia 1580–1645,Leiden 2000, s. 16; Subrahmanyam, Sanjay; Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: c. d., s. 318

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 137

↑ Veen, Ernst van: c. d., s. 32–33 a 82

↑ Emmer, Peter C.: The first global war: The Dutch versus Iberia in Asia, Africa and the New World 1590–1609, in: E-Journal of Portuguese history, 2003, sv. 1, č. 1, s. 6 Elektronická verze článku

↑ Veen, Ernst van: c. d., s. 128–132

↑ Newitt, Malyn. A history of portuguese overseas expansion 1400–1668. London, New York 2005s. 203

↑ Silva, Beatriz Basto da: Entre Goa e Macau – Rivalidade Luso-holandesa no século XVII, in: Boletim de Centro de Estudos Marítimos de Macau, 1989, č. 2, s. 86

c↑ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay: c. d., s. 206

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 129

↑ Emmer, Peter C., c. d., s. 3

↑ Emmer, Peter C., c. d., s. 11

↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Morskie imperium Holandii 1600–1800, Gdaňsk 1980, s. 195–196

↑ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay: c. d., s. 241–245

↑ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay: c. d., s. 239

↑ Srv. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Portuguese and Dutch Colonial Rivalry 1641–1661, in: Studia, č. 2, Lisboa 1958, s. 7–42

↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 143

↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 144

↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 149–150

↑ Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: Estado da Índia, s. 394

↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 158–163

↑ Skočit nahoru k: a b Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: Estado da Índia, s. 395

c↑ Klíma, Jan: Dekolonizace portugalské koloniální říše, Hradec Králové 2000, s. 154

c↑ Klíma, Jan: Dekolonizace portugalské koloniální říše, Hradec Králové 2000, s. 156

c↑ Klíma, Jan: Dekolonizace portugalské koloniální říše, Hradec Králové 2000, s. 160

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 338

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 331

↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Relações raciais no império colonial português 1415–1825, Porto 1988, s. 71.

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 293

c↑ Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 108

c↑ Pedreira, Jorge: Comércio oriental, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 273–276

c↑ Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 336

↑ Matos, Artur Teodoro de: Aspectos da administração das colónias portuguesas dos séculos XVI e XVII, in: Albuquerque, Luís de (org.): Portugal no Mundo, sv. II, Lisboa 1989, s. 641–642

↑ Rosário, António do: Missionação, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 744–751


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External links[editar | editar código-fonte]

O Commons possui uma categoria contendo imagens e outros ficheiros sobre Bruno N. Campos/Testes
  • ColonialVoyage.com – History of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, Brazil.

Predefinição:Portuguese overseas empire Predefinição:Indian independence movement

  1. . The incident is mentioned by Camões in The Lusiads wherein it is stated that the Zamorin "showed no signs of treachery" and that "on the other hand, Gama's conduct in carrying off the five men he had entrapped on board his ships is indefensible".
  2. Sreedhara Menon.A, A Survey of Kerala History(1967),p.152. D.C.Books Kottayam
  3. a b c d e f Malabar manual by William Logan p.312
  4. Goa's Freedom Movement
  5. International Court of Justice Case Summaries, Case Concerning Right of Passage Over Indian Territory (Merits), Judgment of 12 April 1960
  6. Rear Admiral Satyindra Singh AVSM (Ret.), Blueprint to Bluewater, The Indian Navy, 1951–65
  7. Lambert Mascarenhas, "Goa's Freedom Movement," excerpted from Henry Scholberg, Archana Ashok Kakodkar and Carmo Azevedo, Bibliography of Goa and the Portuguese in India New Delhi, Promilla (1982)
  8. Government Polytechnic of Goa, "Liberation of Goa"
  9. ' "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites,'
  10. Jagan Pillarisetti, "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites
  11. Liberation of Goa, Maps of India
  12. Dossier Goa – A Recusa do Sacrifício Inútil. Shvoong.com.
  13. «Gangadhar Yashwant Bhandare vs Erasmo Jesus De Sequiria». manupatra. Consultado em 3 June 2009  Verifique data em: |acessodata= (ajuda)
  14. Soares, Torquato de Sousa: Algumas Observações sobre a Política Marroquina da Monarquia Portuguesa, in: Revista Portuguesa de História, sv. X, Coimbra 1962, s. 526–528
  15. Unali, Anna: Ceuta 1415. Los Orígenes de la Expansión Europea en África, Ceuta 2004, s. 206
  16. Santos, Domingos Maurício Gomes dos: D. Duarte e as Responsabilidades de Tanger (1433–1438), Lisboa 1960, s. 69
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  20. Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: A política oriental de D. Manuel I e suas contracorrentes, in: Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: De Ceuta a Timor, Lisboa 1998, s. 192
  21. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, Lisboa 1977, s. 61
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  23. Thomaz, Luís Filipe: Calecute, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 162
  24. Rosário, António do: Missionação, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 744–751
  25. Sudhakarahn, P. P.: Portuguese relations of the chiefs Kerala, in: P. J. Cherian (Ed.): Perspectives on Kerala history: Kerala & the coming of the Europeans (1500–1800)
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  27. Flores, Jorge Manuel: Malabar, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 654
  28. Thomaz, Luís Filipe: Estrutura política e administrativa do Estado da Índia no século XVI, in: II Seminário Internacional sobre a História Indo-Portuguesa, Lisboa 1985, s. 524
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  30. Monteiro, Saturnino: Batalhas e Combates da Marinha Portuguesa, Portugalské námořní bitvy
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  32. Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: A política oriental de D. Manuel I e suas contracorrentes, s. 194
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  34. Mathew, K. S. (ed.): Maritime Malabar and the Europeans 1500–1962, New Delhi 2003, s. 203
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  36. Diffie, Bailey W. a Winius, George Davison: c. d., sv. II, s. 24–29
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  41. Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: A política oriental de D. Manuel I e suas contracorrentes, s. 196–197
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  45. Flores, Jorge Manuel: Malabar, s. 655–656
  46. Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 66–69
  47. Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 67–68
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  49. Malekandathil, Pius: c. d., s. 132
  50. Mathew, K. S.: History of the Portuguese Navigation in India, New Delhi 1988, s. 168
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  52. Flores, Jorge Manuel: Malabar, c. d., s. 658
  53. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 83–84
  54. Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 91
  55. Codrington, Humphrey William: A short history of Ceylon, 1970, s. 98–114
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  68. Newitt, Malyn. A history of portuguese overseas expansion 1400–1668. London, New York 2005s. 203
  69. Silva, Beatriz Basto da: Entre Goa e Macau – Rivalidade Luso-holandesa no século XVII, in: Boletim de Centro de Estudos Marítimos de Macau, 1989, č. 2, s. 86
  70. Subrahmanyam, Sanjay: c. d., s. 206
  71. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 129
  72. Emmer, Peter C., c. d., s. 3
  73. Emmer, Peter C., c. d., s. 11
  74. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Morskie imperium Holandii 1600–1800, Gdaňsk 1980, s. 195–196
  75. Subrahmanyam, Sanjay: c. d., s. 241–245
  76. Subrahmanyam, Sanjay: c. d., s. 239
  77. Srv. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Portuguese and Dutch Colonial Rivalry 1641–1661, in: Studia, č. 2, Lisboa 1958, s. 7–42
  78. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 143
  79. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 144
  80. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 149–150
  81. Thomaz, Luís Filipe F. R.: Estado da Índia, s. 394
  82. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 158–163
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  86. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 338
  87. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 331
  88. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Relações raciais no império colonial português 1415–1825, Porto 1988, s. 71.
  89. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 293
  90. Pearson, Michael Nayron: c. d., s. 108
  91. Pedreira, Jorge: Comércio oriental, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 273–276
  92. Boxer, Charles Ralph: Império Colonial Português, s. 336
  93. Matos, Artur Teodoro de: Aspectos da administração das colónias portuguesas dos séculos XVI e XVII, in: Albuquerque, Luís de (org.): Portugal no Mundo, sv. II, Lisboa 1989, s. 641–642
  94. Rosário, António do: Missionação, in: Albuquerque, Luís de a kol.: Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, Lisboa 1994, s. 744–751
  95. Narayanan.M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Publications
  96. . The incident is mentioned by Camões in The Lusiads wherein it is stated that the Zamorin "showed no signs of treachery" and that "on the other hand, Gama's conduct in carrying off the five men he had entrapped on board his ships is indefensible".
  97. Sreedhara Menon.A, A Survey of Kerala History(1967),p.152. D.C.Books Kottayam
  98. Goa's Freedom Movement
  99. International Court of Justice Case Summaries, Case Concerning Right of Passage Over Indian Territory (Merits), Judgment of 12 April 1960
  100. Rear Admiral Satyindra Singh AVSM (Ret.), Blueprint to Bluewater, The Indian Navy, 1951–65
  101. Lambert Mascarenhas, "Goa's Freedom Movement," excerpted from Henry Scholberg, Archana Ashok Kakodkar and Carmo Azevedo, Bibliography of Goa and the Portuguese in India New Delhi, Promilla (1982)
  102. Government Polytechnic of Goa, "Liberation of Goa"
  103. ' "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites,'
  104. Jagan Pillarisetti, "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites
  105. Liberation of Goa, Maps of India
  106. Dossier Goa – A Recusa do Sacrifício Inútil. Shvoong.com.
  107. «Gangadhar Yashwant Bhandare vs Erasmo Jesus De Sequiria». manupatra. Consultado em 3 June 2009  Verifique data em: |acessodata= (ajuda)
  108. «Gangadhar Yashwant Bhandare vs Erasmo Jesus De Sequiria». manupatra. Consultado em 3 June 2009  Verifique data em: |acessodata= (ajuda)