Lança de fogo

Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.
Ilustração de uma lança de fogo publicada no Huolongjing.

A lança de fogo, foi uma arma de pólvora muito antiga que apareceu na China do século X e foi usada com grande efeito durante as Guerras Jin–Sung. Ela começou como um pequeno dispositivo pirotécnico anexado a uma arma semelhante a uma lança, usado para obter uma vantagem crítica de choque logo no início de um combate corpo a corpo.[1]

À medida que a produção da pólvora evoluiu, a descarga explosiva foi aumentada e detritos ou pelotas adicionados, dando-lhe alguns dos efeitos de uma combinação moderna de lança-chamas e espingarda, mas com um alcance muito curto (cerca de 3 metros ou 10 pés), e apenas um tiro (algumas foram projetadas para dois tiros). Em lanças de fogo maiores e mais poderosas posteriores, a ponta da lança foi descartada, pois essas versões eram muito pesadas para serem usadas em combate corpo a corpo. Elas são considerados uma "proto-arma", o antecessor do canhão de mão e a ancestral de todas as armas de fogo.[2] Algumas lanças de fogo eram grandes demais para um único homem empunhar. Elas eram colocados no solo em uma estrutura de suporte que podem ser considerados "proto-canhões".[carece de fontes?]

Galeria[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ver também[editar | editar código-fonte]

Referências

  1. Andrade 2016, p. 38.
  2. Andrade 2016, p. 33.

Bibliografias[editar | editar código-fonte]

  • Adle, Chahryar (2003), History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in Contrast: from the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century 
  • Ágoston, Gábor (2008), Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire, ISBN 0-521-60391-9, Cambridge University Press 
  • Agrawal, Jai Prakash (2010), High Energy Materials: Propellants, Explosives and Pyrotechnics, Wiley-VCH 
  • Andrade, Tonio (2016), The Gunpowder Age: China, Military Innovation, and the Rise of the West in World History, ISBN 978-0-691-13597-7, Princeton University Press .
  • Arnold, Thomas (2001), The Renaissance at War, ISBN 0-304-35270-5, Cassell & Co 
  • Benton, Captain James G. (1862). A Course of Instruction in Ordnance and Gunnery 2 ed. West Point, New York: Thomas Publications. ISBN 1-57747-079-6 
  • Brown, G. I. (1998), The Big Bang: A History of Explosives, ISBN 0-7509-1878-0, Sutton Publishing .
  • Buchanan, Brenda J., ed. (2006), Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A Technological History, ISBN 0-7546-5259-9, Aldershot: Ashgate 
  • Chase, Kenneth (2003), Firearms: A Global History to 1700, ISBN 0-521-82274-2, Cambridge University Press .
  • Cocroft, Wayne (2000), Dangerous Energy: The archaeology of gunpowder and military explosives manufacture, ISBN 1-85074-718-0, Swindon: English Heritage 
  • Cowley, Robert (1993), Experience of War, Laurel .
  • Cressy, David (2013), Saltpeter: The Mother of Gunpowder, Oxford University Press 
  • Crosby, Alfred W. (2002), Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History, ISBN 0-521-79158-8, Cambridge University Press .
  • Curtis, W. S. (2014), Long Range Shooting: A Historical Perspective, WeldenOwen .
  • Earl, Brian (1978), Cornish Explosives, ISBN 0-904040-13-5, Cornwall: The Trevithick Society .
  • Easton, S. C. (1952), Roger Bacon and His Search for a Universal Science: A Reconsideration of the Life and Work of Roger Bacon in the Light of His Own Stated Purposes, Basil Blackwell 
  • Ebrey, Patricia B. (1999), The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, ISBN 0-521-43519-6, Cambridge University Press 
  • Grant, R.G. (2011), Battle at Sea: 3,000 Years of Naval Warfare, DK Publishing .
  • Hadden, R. Lee. 2005. "Confederate Boys and Peter Monkeys." Armchair General. January 2005. Adapted from a talk given to the Geological Society of America on March 25, 2004.
  • Harding, Richard (1999), Seapower and Naval Warfare, 1650-1830, UCL Press Limited 
  • al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. (2001), «Potassium Nitrate in Arabic and Latin Sources», History of Science and Technology in Islam, consultado em 23 de julho de 2007 .
  • Hobson, John M. (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, Cambridge University Press .
  • Johnson, Norman Gardner. «explosive». Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Online 
  • Kelly, Jack (2004), Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, & Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World, ISBN 0-465-03718-6, Basic Books .
  • Khan, Iqtidar Alam (1996), «Coming of Gunpowder to the Islamic World and North India: Spotlight on the Role of the Mongols», Journal of Asian History, 30: 41–5 .
  • Khan, Iqtidar Alam (2004), Gunpowder and Firearms: Warfare in Medieval India, Oxford University Press 
  • Khan, Iqtidar Alam (2008), Historical Dictionary of Medieval India, ISBN 0-8108-5503-8, The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 
  • Kinard, Jeff (2007), Artillery An Illustrated History of its Impact 
  • Konstam, Angus (2002), Renaissance War Galley 1470-1590, Osprey Publisher Ltd. .
  • Liang, Jieming (2006), Chinese Siege Warfare: Mechanical Artillery & Siege Weapons of Antiquity, ISBN 981-05-5380-3, Singapore, Republic of Singapore: Leong Kit Meng 
  • Lidin, Olaf G. (2002), Tanegashima – The Arrival of Europe in Japan, ISBN 8791114128, Nordic Inst of Asian Studies 
  • Lorge, Peter A. (2008), The Asian Military Revolution: from Gunpowder to the Bomb, ISBN 978-0-521-60954-8, Cambridge University Press 
  • Lu, Gwei-Djen (1988), «The Oldest Representation of a Bombard», Technology and Culture, 29: 594–605 
  • McLachlan, Sean (2010), Medieval Handgonnes 
  • McNeill, William Hardy (1992), The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community, University of Chicago Press .
  • Morillo, Stephen (2008), War in World History: Society, Technology, and War from Ancient Times to the Present, Volume 1, To 1500, ISBN 978-0-07-052584-9, McGraw-Hill 
  • Needham, Joseph (1980), Science & Civilisation in China, ISBN 0-521-08573-X, 5 pt. 4, Cambridge University Press 
  • Needham, Joseph (1986), Science & Civilisation in China, ISBN 0-521-30358-3, V:5 pt. 7: The Gunpowder Epic, Cambridge University Press .
  • Nicolle, David (1990), The Mongol Warlords: Ghengis Khan, Kublai Khan, Hulegu, Tamerlane 
  • Nolan, Cathal J. (2006), The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000–1650: an Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Vol 1, A-K, ISBN 0-313-33733-0, 1, Westport & London: Greenwood Press 
  • Norris, John (2003), Early Gunpowder Artillery: 1300–1600, Marlborough: The Crowood Press .
  • Partington, J. R. (1960), A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, Cambridge, UK: W. Heffer & Sons .
  • Partington, J. R. (1999), A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, ISBN 0-8018-5954-9, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press 
  • Patrick, John Merton (1961), Artillery and warfare during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Utah State University Press .
  • Pauly, Roger (2004), Firearms: The Life Story of a Technology, Greenwood Publishing Group .
  • Perrin, Noel (1979), Giving up the Gun, Japan's reversion to the Sword, 1543–1879, ISBN 0-87923-773-2, Boston: David R. Godine 
  • Petzal, David E. (2014), The Total Gun Manual (Canadian edition), WeldonOwen .
  • Phillips, Henry Prataps (2016), The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons (c.1000 to 1850), Notion Press 
  • Purton, Peter (2010), A History of the Late Medieval Siege, 1200–1500, ISBN 1-84383-449-9, Boydell Press 
  • Robins, Benjamin (1742), New Principles of Gunnery 
  • Rose, Susan (2002), Medieval Naval Warfare 1000-1500, Routledge 
  • Roy, Kaushik (2015), Warfare in Pre-British India, Routledge 
  • Schmidtchen, Volker (1977a), "Riesengeschütze des 15. Jahrhunderts. Technische Höchstleistungen ihrer Zeit", Technikgeschichte 44 (2): 153–173 (153–157)
  • Schmidtchen, Volker (1977b), "Riesengeschütze des 15. Jahrhunderts. Technische Höchstleistungen ihrer Zeit", Technikgeschichte 44 (3): 213–237 (226–228)
  • Swope, Kenneth M. (2013), The Military Collapse of China's Ming Dynasty, 1618-44 (Asian States and Empires), Routledge .
  • Tran, Nhung Tuyet (2006), Viêt Nam Borderless Histories, University of Wisconsin Press .
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2003), Fighting Ships Far East (2: Japan and Korea Ad 612-1639, ISBN 1-84176-478-7, Osprey Publishing 
  • Urbanski, Tadeusz (1967), Chemistry and Technology of Explosives, III, New York: Pergamon Press .
  • Villalon, L. J. Andrew (2008), The Hundred Years War (part II): Different Vistas, ISBN 978-90-04-16821-3, Brill Academic Pub 
  • Wagner, John A. (2006), The Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, ISBN 0-313-32736-X, Westport & London: Greenwood Press 
  • Watson, Peter (2006), Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud, ISBN 0-06-093564-2, Harper Perennial (2006) 
  • Willbanks, James H. (2004), Machine guns: an illustrated history of their impact, ABC-CLIO, Inc. 

Ligações externas[editar | editar código-fonte]

O Commons possui uma categoria com imagens e outros ficheiros sobre Lança de fogo
Ícone de esboço Este artigo sobre armas é um esboço. Você pode ajudar a Wikipédia expandindo-o.