Toga

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Disambig grey.svg Nota: Para o município espanhol, veja Toga (Espanha).
Uma toga
Magistrado vestindo uma toga

A toga era uma peça de vestuário característica da Roma Antiga.

Trata-se de uma peça de roupa de origem etrusca. De início, a toga apresentava uma forma retangular e curta. Mais tarde, passou a ser semicircular, tendo seu tamanho aumentado consideravelmente: a toga chegou a atingir aproximadamente 6 metros no lado reto e 2 metros de largura. Por isso, era difícil de usar, pelo que os romanos mais ricos possuíam mesmo um escravo encarregado de ajudar nesta tarefa (o uestiplicus).

A toga era a marca distintiva do cidadão romano, sendo proibido o seu uso aos estrangeiros e escravos. As mulheres romanas também utilizaram a toga, mas gradualmente adotaram a estola (uma espécie de vestido); a partir da época da República a toga passou a ser usada apenas pelas mulheres condenadas por adultério.

Tipos de toga[editar | editar código-fonte]

Existiam vários tipos de toga, associadas a diferentes funções e estatutos.

  • Toga viril (Toga pura/virillis) — era um toga lisa, feita de branca, usadas pelos homens romanos assim que atingissem a idade adulta.
  • Toga pretexta (Toga praetexta) — era uma toga branca que apresentava uma banda larga de cor púrpura. Era usada pelos rapazes que ainda não tinham tomado a toga viril e pelas jovens que ainda não tinham casado, bem como pelos principais magistrados e sacerdotes.
  • Toga cândida (Toga candida) — toga de um branco imaculado, era envergada pelos candidatos a cargos públicos (os candidati, de onde deriva a palavra candidato). A brancura desta toga era muitas vezes realçada recorrendo-se a cré.
  • Toga picta (Toga picta/purpurea) — usada pelos triunfadores e mais tarde pelo imperador.
  • Toga sórdida (Toga sordida/pulla) — era a toga dos pobres e do réu quando se apresentava no tribunal (servindo neste caso a toga para inspirar um sentimento de piedade).
  • Toga trábea (Toga trabea) — era uma toga toda púrpura ou então ornamentada com riscas horizontais de cor púrpura. Era usada pelos áugures e sacerdotes durante os atos rituais. Os deuses eram também representados usando esta toga.

Bibliografia[editar | editar código-fonte]

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  • Dugan, John (2005). Making a New Man: Ciceronian Self-Fashioning in the Rhetorical Works. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926780-4 
  • Edmondson, Jonathan (2008). «1 Public Dress and Social Control in Late Republican and Early Imperial Rome». In: Edmondson, Johnathan; Keith, Alison. Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 21–46 
  • Edwards, Catharine (1997). «Unspeakable Professions: Public Performance and Prostitution in Ancient Rome». In: Hallett, P. J.; Skinner, B. M. Roman Sexualities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 66–95 
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  • La Follette, Laetitia (2001). «3 The Costume of the Roman Bride». In: Sebesta, Judith Lynn; Bonfante, Larissa. The World of Roman Costume. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 54–64. ISBN 9781442689039. JSTOR 10.3138/9781442689039. doi:10.3138/9781442689039 
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  • Rothe, Ursula (2020). The Toga and Roman Identity. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-4725-7154-0 
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  • Vout, Caroline (1996). «The Myth of the Toga: Understanding the History of Roman Dress». Greece & Rome. 43 (2): 204–220. JSTOR 643096. doi:10.1093/gr/43.2.204 
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Ver também[editar | editar código-fonte]

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