Bharat Ratna

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A medalha do Bharat Ratna.

Bharat Ratna (em hindi "भारत रत्न" - joia da Índia) é a mais alta condecoração civil da Índia, concedido para os graus mais altos de serviço nacional. Este serviço inclui o ramo artístico, literário e científico, bem como "o reconhecimento do serviço público da mais alta ordem".

Dentre os laureados estão Rajiv Gandhi (1991), Nelson Mandela (1990), Indira Gandhi (1971), dentre outros.[1]


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Laureados[editar | editar código-fonte]

Laureado Imagem Nascimento / morte Ano Notas
1 Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari C Rajagopalachari Feb 17 2011.JPG 1878–1972 1954 Independence activist, last Governor-General
2 Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Sir CV Raman.JPG 1888–1970 1954 Physicist
3 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Radhakrishnan.jpg 1888–1975 1954 Philosopher, second President
4 Bhagwan Das 1869–1958 1955 Independence activist, author
5 Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya 1861–1962 1955 Civil engineer, Diwan of Mysore
6 Jawaharlal Nehru Bundesarchiv Bild 183-61849-0001, Indien, Otto Grotewohl bei Ministerpräsident Nehru cropped.jpg 1889–1964 1955 Independence activist, author, first Prime Minister
7 Govind Ballabh Pant 1887–1961 1957 Independence activist, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Home Minister
8 Dhondo Keshav Karve 1858–1962 1958 Educator, social reformer
9 Bidhan Chandra Roy 1882–1962 1961 Physician, Chief Minister of West Bengal
10 Purushottam Das Tandon 1882–1962 1961 Independence activist, educator
11 Rajendra Prasad 1884–1963 1962 Independence activist, jurist, first President
12 Zakir Hussain 1897–1969 1963 Scholar, third President
13 Pandurang Vaman Kane 1880–1972 1963 Indologist and Sanskrit scholar
14 Lal Bahadur Shastri 1736 Lal Bahadur Shastri.jpg 1904–1966 1966 Posthumous, independence activist, second Prime Minister
15 Indira Gandhi Indira2.jpg 1917–1984 1971 Third Prime Minister
16 Varahagiri Venkata Giri 1894–1980 1975 Trade unionist and fourth President
17 K. Kamaraj 1903–1975 1976 Posthumous, independence activist, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu State
18 Mother Teresa MotherTeresa 090.jpg 1910–1997 1980 Catholic nun, founder of the Missionaries of Charity
19 Vinoba Bhave Gandhi and Vinoba.jpg 1895–1982 1983 Posthumous, social reformer, independence activist
20 Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.jpg 1890–1988 1987 First non-citizen, independence activist
21 M. G. Ramachandran MGR with K Karunakaran (cropped).jpg 1917–1987 1988 Posthumous, film actor, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
22 B.R. Ambedkar Ambedkar Barrister.jpg 1891–1956 1990 Posthumous, chief architect of the Indian Constitution, politician, economist, and scholar
23 Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela-2008 (edit).jpg b. 1918 1990 Second non-citizen and first non-Indian recipient, Leader of the Anti-Apartheid movement
24 Rajiv Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi (cropped).jpg 1944–1991 1991 Posthumous, Sixth Prime Minister
25 Vallabhbhai Patel 1875–1950 1991 Posthumous, independence activist, first Home Minister
26 Morarji Desai Morarji Desai 1978.jpg 1896–1995 1991 Independence activist, fourth Prime Minister
27 Abul Kalam Azad 1888–1958 1992 Posthumous, independence activist, first Minister of Education
28 J. R. D. Tata 1904–1993 1992 Industrialist and philanthropist
29 Satyajit Ray SatyajitRay.jpg 1922–1992 1992 Bengali filmmaker
30 A. P. J. Abdul Kalam AbdulKalam.JPG b. 1931 1997 Aeronautical Engineer,11th President of India
31 Gulzarilal Nanda 1898–1998 1997 Independence activist, interim Prime Minister
32 Aruna Asaf Ali 1908–1996 1997 Posthumous, independence activist
33 M. S. Subbulakshmi Ms subbulakshmi.jpg 1916–2004 1998 Carnatic classical singer
34 Chidambaram Subramaniam 1910–2000 1998 Independence activist, Minister of Agriculture
35 Jayaprakash Narayan 1902–1979 1999 Posthumous, independence activist and politician
36 Ravi Shankar Ravi Shankar 2009 crop.jpg b. 1920 1999 Sitar player
37 Amartya Sen Amartya Sen NIH.jpg b. 1933 1999 Economist
38 Gopinath Bordoloi 1890–1950 1999 Posthumous, independence activist, Chief Minister of Assam
39 Lata Mangeshkar Lata Mangeshkar - still 29065 crop.jpg b. 1929 2001 Playback singer
40 Bismillah Khan Bismillah at Concert1 (edited).jpg 1916–2006 2001 Hindustani classical shehnai player
41 Bhimsen Joshi 1922–2011 2008 Hindustani classical singer

Referências

  1. Institucional. Bharat Ratna Awardees. Governo da Índia. Página visitada em 5 de março de 2012.
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