Estado pária

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Estados que tenham sido (em um momento ou outro) rotulados ou tratados como "Estados párias"

Um Estado pária é uma nação cuja conduta é considerada fora das normas internacionais de comportamento por parte ou por toda a comunidade internacional (como a Organização das Nações Unidas) ou por algumas das grandes potências. Um Estado pária poderá enfrentar o isolamento internacional, sanções ou mesmo ataque militar por países que vejam as suas políticas e ações como inaceitáveis. O termo está intimamente relacionado com a denominação "Estado vilão".

Lista[editar | editar código-fonte]

Por várias vezes no passado, os seguintes estados foram rotulados ou tratados como párias no sistema internacional. Alguns deles ainda são rotulados como tal atualmente:

Atual[editar | editar código-fonte]

Antigos[editar | editar código-fonte]

Referências

  1. Abkhazia: A promising pariah on the Black Sea - Editorials & Commentary - International Herald Tribune
  2. Belarus Cracks Down, VOA, April 1, 2008
  3. «Ethiopia troops attack rebels inside pariah state Eritrea». National Post. Reuters. 15 de março de 2012. Despite the repeated denials that it is not a destabilising force in the volatile Horn of Africa region, Eritrea is widely regarded in the international community as a pariah state and is deeply mistrusted by its neighbours 
  4. Michela Wrong (3 de agosto de 2011). «How double-dealing built a pariah state». Financial Times 
  5. Djibouti says Eritrea will bow to UN sanctions, Reuters Africa, April 21, 2010
  6. Obiang, dictator in fashion in New York, afrol.com, September 9, 2000
  7. War report wounds isolated Georgian leader
  8. Trita Parsi (2007). Treacherous Alliance, The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States. London: Yale University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-300-12057-5 
  9. David Rodman (2000). «5. "Normal" or "Special" ?». In: Laura Zittrain Eisenberg, Neil Caplan. Review Essays in Israel Studies. Suny Series in Israeli Studies, Vol. 5. [S.l.]: State University of New York Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-7914-4422-1. For most of the post-1967 period, Israel has been a pariah state in the world community 
  10. Robert E. Harkavy (1981). «Pariah states and nuclear proliferation». Cambridge University Press. International Organization. 35 (1): 135-163. doi:10.1017/S0020818300004112. In recent years, a new international actor—the pariah state—has mounted the global stage. Although rough historical precedents may be discerned, the present international system appears to have produced a novel phenomenon, whereby some isolated small states, lacking assured and credible outside security support, find themselves unable to take advantage of traditional balance-of-power mechanisms. Taiwan, South Africa, and Israel fit this description best, South Korea less so; Pakistan and Chile are also candidates. 
  11. Irving Louis Horowitz (1976). «24. From Pariah People to Pariah Nation: Jews, Israelis and the Third World». In: Michael Curtis, Susan Aurelia Gitelson. Israel in the Third World. [S.l.]: Transaction Publishers. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-87855-603-8. Israel has been defined as a pariah nation, suited to harboring a "settler people" 
  12. Ian Bellany (2007). «1. Material dangers». In: Ian Bellany. Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Responding to the challenge. [S.l.]: Routledge. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-415-57065-7. Israel is a pariah 
  13. Francis Anthony Boyle (1985). World politics and international law. [S.l.]: Duke University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-8223-0655-9. On some of these issues, Israel has stood alone in a seemingly willful refusal to adhere to even the most basic requirements of international law in its relations with other states and peoples. The list of abuses is so extensive and universally held that Israel has gradually become a pariah state within the international community, a status it shares with the apartheid regime of South Africa 
  14. L. Carl Brown (2004). «VI. Conclusion: Making Sense of Middle East Diplomacy». In: L. Carl Brown. Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers. [S.l.]: I. B. Tauris. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-86064-899-1. Israel has been throughout most of its existence a pariah state in the midst of the Arab world 
  15. Micah Zenko (8 de março de 2012). «Come Out of the Nuclear Closet». The New York Times. Israel has pigeonholed itself as an international pariah, allowing adversaries and the nonaligned movement to use Israeli intransigence as an excuse to slow progress on nuclear nonproliferation objectives, including preventing a nuclear Iran 
  16. Rupert Cornwell (18 de outubro de 2002). «North Korea: A pariah state, its secret nuclear programme — and a new crisis for Bush». London: The Independent. Consultado em 19 de janeiro de 2008 
  17. a b Thomas H. Henriksen, 'The Rise and Decline of Rogue States'. Journal of International Affairs, 54(2), 2001, 349-373.
  18. [1], OpenDemocracy, June 6, 2000
  19. Sudan's War on Itself; From Rogue State to Pariah State, New York Times
  20. The Sheriff of the Wild East - The Slavic Football Union
  21. Multi-party, no-party: Uganda's choice, BBC News, June 29, 2000
  22. Uzbek leader silences critics of massacre, The Independent, May 13, 2006
  23. http://internacional.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,diante-de-prisao-de-opositores-na-venezuela-ue-ja-estuda-sancoesao-pais,70001918422
  24. https://brasil.elpais.com/brasil/2017/07/31/internacional/1501522342_637988.html
  25. http://internacional.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,eua-impoem-sancoes-financeiras-a-maduro-apos-constituinte-na-venezuela,70001916946
  26. Mugabe made Zimbabwe a pariah state, says Straw, Daily Telegraph, August 25, 2002
  27. Frozen In Time, TIME, 156(21), May 29, 2000
  28. En route to the EU, European Policy Centre, April 2010
  29. The Argentine Pariah
  30. Asean Can Act as Burma's Bridge to the World
  31. At Last, Justice Comes to Cambodia, Yale Global Online, February 13, 2009
  32. Chile, International War Crimes Report, June 4, 2010
  33. Haiti Crisis, Washington Post, March 1, 2004
  34. Arrest warrant for Liberian leader, BBC News, June 4, 2003
  35. Taylor's Liberia becoming pariah nation, afrol.com, January 20
  36. Paul Keller (6 de janeiro de 2004). «Libya's two decades as pariah state». BBC News. Consultado em 19 de janeiro de 2008 
  37. Alfredo Stroessner; Paraguayan Dictator, Washington Post, August 17, 2006
  38. War crimes fugitive Mladic arrested MSN News UK, May 26, 2011
  39. http://www.srilankamirror.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4716:lanka-a-pariah-state-after-israeli-ambassador-came-to-the-defence&catid=1:latest-news&Itemid=50
  40. Susan Willett (1995). «The Legacy of a Pariah State: South Africa's Arms Trade in the 1990s». Review of African Political Economy. 64: 151–166 
  41. Turkmenistan Leader's Death May Spur Struggle, Wall Street Journal, December 22, 2006
  42. Isolation again fails as a foreign policy, New York University, August 17, 2000
  43. Zaire - Involvement in the Angolan Civil War, countrydata.com, 1993