Republicanismo nos Estados Unidos

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O Capitólio dos Estados Unidos exalta as virtudes republicanas clássicas.[1]

O republicanismo é o sistema de valores políticos que vem sendo a parte principal do pensamento cívico dos Estados Unidos desde a Revolução Americana.[2] Ela enfatiza a liberdade e os direitos inalienáveis como seus valores centrais, faz do povo, como um todo, soberano, rejeita o poder político herdado, espera que os cidadãos sejam independentes em sua atuação nos deveres cívicos, e vilaniza a corrupção política.[3] O republicanismo americano foi fundado e praticado pela primeira vez pelos Pais Fundadores da nação, no século XVIII. O sistema teve como base os modelos romano, renascentista e inglês.[4] Além da Revolução Americana, serviu como base para a declaração de independência (1776) e da constituição (1787) do país, bem como o Discurso de Gettysburg[5]

Republicanismo não é o mesmo que democracia, na medida em que ele assegura que as pessoas têm direitos inalienáveis que não podem ser eliminados nem mesmo por uma maioria de eleitores. Desde a década de 1830, quando Alexis de Tocqueville alertou a respeito da "tirania da maioria" numa democracia, os defensores das minorias têm procurado avisar sobre a necessidade dos tribunais protegerem estes direitos, revertendo os esforços feitos pelos votantes de acabarem com os direitos de uma minoria impopular.[6] De acordo com Martin Edelman, professor de ciência política da Universidade do Estado de Nova Iorque em Albany (1984), o que o juiz da Suprema Corte Joseph Story havia alertado, quando se opôs à democracia jacksoniana, havia acontecido; Story via "opressão" quando as maiorias populares de diversos estados, durante a década de 1830, começaram a restringir e erodir os direitos de propriedade da minoria de homens ricos.[7] Para Edelman o Chefe de Justiça John Marshall, ao se utilizar da doutrina da revisão judicial[8] teve um papel crucial na promoção do republicanismo dos pais fundadores.[9]

"Republicanismo" deriva do termo "república", porém as duas palavras têm significados bem diferentes; enquanto "república" é uma forma de governo, "republicanismo" é uma ideologia política.[10]

Dois dos principais partidos do país receberam evidentemente seus nomes a partir deste conceito; o partido republicano de Thomas Jefferson (fundado em 1793, e chamado com frequência de "Partido Democrata-Republicano" pelos cientistas políticos), e o atual Partido Republicano (fundado em 1854).

Referências

  1. Bowling, Kenneth R. "A Capital before a Capitol: Republican Visions," in Donald R. Kennon (ed.) A Republic for the Ages: The United States Capitol and the Political Culture of the Early Republic (1999)
  2. Shalhope, Robert E. "Toward a Republican Synthesis: The Emergence of an Understanding of Republicanism in American Historiography," William and Mary Quarterly, 29 (Janeiro de 1972), 49-80
  3. Buel, Richard. Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789–1815 (1972)
  4. Becker et al (2002), ch 1
  5. Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution: How a Revolution Transformed a Monarchical Society into a Democratic One Unlike Any That Had Ever Existed (1992).
  6. Volk, Kyle G. "The Perils of 'Pure Democracy': Minority Rights, Liquor Politics, and Popular Sovereignty in Antebellum America," Journal of the Early Republic volume 29, número 4, inverno de 2009 DOI: 10.1353/jer.0.0113
  7. Edelman, Martin. Democratic theories and the Constitution (1984) p. 30
  8. Revisão judicial se refere a uma decisão de um tribunal que derruba uma lei considerada inconstitucional.
  9. Edelman, Democratic theories and the Constitution (1984) p 22
  10. Hart, (2002), ch 1

References[editar | editar código-fonte]

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