Republicanismo nos Estados Unidos

Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.
Ir para: navegação, pesquisa
O Capitólio dos Estados Unidos exalta as virtudes republicanas clássicas.1

O republicanismo é o sistema de valores políticos que vem sendo a parte principal do pensamento cívico dos Estados Unidos desde a Revolução Americana.2 Ela enfatiza a liberdade e os direitos inalienáveis como seus valores centrais, faz do povo, como um todo, soberano, rejeita o poder político herdado, espera que os cidadãos sejam independentes em sua atuação nos deveres cívicos, e vilaniza a corrupção política.3 O republicanismo americano foi fundado e praticado pela primeira vez pelos Pais Fundadores da nação, no século XVIII. O sistema teve como base os modelos romano, renascentista e inglês.4 Além da Revolução Americana, serviu como base para a declaração de independência (1776) e da constituição (1787) do país, bem como o Discurso de Gettysburg5

Republicanismo não é o mesmo que democracia, na medida em que ele assegura que as pessoas têm direitos inalienáveis que não podem ser eliminados nem mesmo por uma maioria de eleitores. Desde a década de 1830, quando Alexis de Tocqueville alertou a respeito da "tirania da maioria" numa democracia, os defensores das minorias têm procurado avisar sobre a necessidade dos tribunais protegerem estes direitos, revertendo os esforços feitos pelos votantes de acabarem com os direitos de uma minoria impopular.6 De acordo com Martin Edelman, professor de ciência política da Universidade do Estado de Nova Iorque em Albany (1984), o que o juiz da Suprema Corte Joseph Story havia alertado, quando se opôs à democracia jacksoniana, havia acontecido; Story via "opressão" quando as maiorias populares de diversos estados, durante a década de 1830, começaram a restringir e erodir os direitos de propriedade da minoria de homens ricos.7 Para Edelman o Chefe de Justiça John Marshall, ao se utilizar da doutrina da revisão judicial8 teve um papel crucial na promoção do republicanismo dos pais fundadores.9

"Republicanismo" deriva do termo "república", porém as duas palavras têm significados bem diferentes; enquanto "república" é uma forma de governo, "republicanismo" é uma ideologia política.10

Dois dos principais partidos do país receberam evidentemente seus nomes a partir deste conceito; o partido republicano de Thomas Jefferson (fundado em 1793, e chamado com frequência de "Partido Democrata-Republicano" pelos cientistas políticos), e o atual Partido Republicano (fundado em 1854).

Referências

  1. Bowling, Kenneth R. "A Capital before a Capitol: Republican Visions," in Donald R. Kennon (ed.) A Republic for the Ages: The United States Capitol and the Political Culture of the Early Republic (1999)
  2. Shalhope, Robert E. "Toward a Republican Synthesis: The Emergence of an Understanding of Republicanism in American Historiography," William and Mary Quarterly, 29 (Janeiro de 1972), 49-80
  3. Buel, Richard. Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789–1815 (1972)
  4. Becker et al (2002), ch 1
  5. Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution: How a Revolution Transformed a Monarchical Society into a Democratic One Unlike Any That Had Ever Existed (1992).
  6. Volk, Kyle G. "The Perils of 'Pure Democracy': Minority Rights, Liquor Politics, and Popular Sovereignty in Antebellum America," Journal of the Early Republic volume 29, número 4, inverno de 2009 DOI: 10.1353/jer.0.0113
  7. Edelman, Martin. Democratic theories and the Constitution (1984) p. 30
  8. Revisão judicial se refere a uma decisão de um tribunal que derruba uma lei considerada inconstitucional.
  9. Edelman, Democratic theories and the Constitution (1984) p 22
  10. Hart, (2002), ch 1

References[editar | editar código-fonte]

  • Appleby, Joyce. Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination (1992)
  • Appleby, Joyce. "Commercial Farming and the ‘Agrarian Myth’ in the Early Republic," Journal of American History 68 (1982), pp. 833-849 in JSTOR
  • Appleby, Joyce. “Republicanism in Old and New Contexts,” in William & Mary Quarterly, 43 (janeiro, 1986), pp 3–34 in JSTOR
  • Appleby, Joyce, ed. "Republicanism in the History and Historiography of the United States," edição especial de American Quarterly, vol. 37, nº 4, (1985) com estes artigos
    • Joyce Appleby, "Republicanism and Ideology," pp. 461–473 in JSTOR
    • Linda K. Kerber, "The Republican Ideology of the Revolutionary Generation," pp. 474–495 in JSTOR
    • Cathy Matson and Peter Onuf, "Toward a Republican Empire: Interest and Ideology in Revolutionary America," pp. 496–531 in JSTOR
    • Jean Baker, "From Belief into Culture: Republicanism in the Antebellum North," pp. 532–550 in JSTOR
    • James Oakes. "From Republicanism to Liberalism: Ideological Change and the Crisis of the Old South," pp. 551–571 in JSTOR
    • John Patrick Diggins, "Republicanism and Progressivism," pp. 572–598 in JSTOR
  • Joyce Appleby, Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s, 1984, her reprinted essays
  • Ashworth, John, "The Jeffersonians: Classical Republicans or Liberal Capitalists?" Journal of American Studies 18 (1984), p 428-430
  • Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. (1967). ISBN 0-674-44301-2
  • Bailyn, Bernard. The Origins of American Politics (1966)
  • Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1978)
  • Becker, Peter, Jürgen Heideking and James A. Henretta, eds. Republicanism and Liberalism in America and the German States, 1750-1850. (2002).
  • Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology And The Second Party System" Historian, outono, 1999 v62#1 pp 17–44 ed. online
  • Brown; Stuart Gerry. The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison (1954).
  • Buel, Richard. Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789–1815 (1972)
  • J. C. D. Clark. The Language of Liberty 1660-1832: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World, 1660-1832
  • Colbourn, Trevor. The Lamp of Experience: Whig History and the Intellectual Origins of the American Revolution (1965) ed. online
  • Currie, James T., The Constitution in Congress: The Federalist Period, 1789–1801, (1997); The Constitution in Congress: The Jeffersonians, 1801–1829, U. of Chicago Press, 2001
  • Elkins, Stanley M., and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1993)
  • Ellis, Joseph J. American Creation: Triumphs and Tragedies in the Founding of the Republic (2007)
  • Everdell, William R. The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans, (2nd ed. 2000)
  • Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. [S.l.: s.n.], 1970.
  • Ferling, John E. A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic. (2003) ed. online
  • Foner, Eric. "Radical Individualism in America: Revolution to Civil War," Literature of Liberty, vol. 1 no. 3, July/September 1978 pp 1-31 online
  • Gould, Philip. "Virtue, Ideology, and the American Revolution: The Legacy of the Republican Synthesis," American Literary History, Vol. 5, No. 3, Eighteenth-Century American Cultural Studies (Autumn, 1993) , pp. 564–577
  • Greene, Jack P. and J. R. Pole, eds. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (1991), 845pp; emphasis on political ideas and republicanism; revised edition (2004) titled A Companion to the American Revolution
  • Hartz, Louis. The Liberal Tradition in America (1952)
  • Hart, Gary. Restoration of the Republic: The Jeffersonian Ideal in 21St-Century America (2002)
  • Jacobs, Meg, ed. The Democratic Experiment: New Directions in American Political History
  • Kerber, Linda K. "The Republican Mother: Women and the Enlightenment-An American Perspective," American Quarterly, vol. 28, nº 2, (verão de 1976), pp. 187–205 in JSTOR
  • Kerber, Linda K. Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (1997)
  • Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (2001)
  • Klein, Milton, et al., eds., The Republican Synthesis Revisited (1992).
  • Kloopenberg, James T. The Virtues of Liberalism (1998)
  • Kramnick, Isaac. Republicanism and Bourgeois Radicalism: Political Ideology in Late Eighteenth-Century England and America (1990)
  • Kramnick, Isaac and Theodore Lowi. American Political Thought (2006)
  • McCoy, Drew R. The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America (1980)
  • McCoy, Drew R. The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy (1989).
  • Morgan. Edmund. Inventing the People (1989)
  • Mushkat, Jerome, and Joseph G. Rayback, Martin Van Buren: Law, Politics, and the Shaping of Republican Ideology (1997)
  • Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800 (1980)
  • Pangle, Thomas L. The Spirit of Modern Republicanism: The Moral Vision of the American Founders and the Philosophy of Locke
  • Pocock, J.G.A.. The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition (1975).
  • Pocock, J.G.A.. "The Machiavellian Moment Revisited: A Study in History and Ideology," Journal of Modern History Vol. 53, No. 1 (Mar., 1981), pp. 49–72 in JSTOR
  • Rakove, Jack N. Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution (1997)
  • Rodgers, Daniel T. "Republicanism: the Career of a Concept," Journal of American History, vol. 79, nº 1 (junho, 1992), pp. 11–38 online no JSTOR
  • Ross, Steven J. "The Transformation of Republican Ideology," Journal of the Early Republic, vol. 10, nº 3 (outono, 1990) , pp. 323–330 in JSTOR
  • Schwartz, Peter (July 18, 2006). Freedom vs. Unlimited Majority Rule. The Ayn Rand Institute. online
  • Shalhope, Robert E. "Toward a Republican Synthesis: The Emergence of an Understanding of Republicanism in American Historiography," William and Mary Quarterly, 29 (January 1972), 49-80 in JSTOR
  • Shalhope, Robert E. "Republicanism and Early American Historiography," William and Mary Quarterly, 39 (abril de 1982), 334-356 in JSTOR
  • Watson, Harry L. Liberty and Power: The Politics of Jacksonian America (1990) (ISBN 0-374-52196-4)
  • White, Ed. "The Ends of Republicanism," Journal of the Early Republic, verão de 2010, vol. 30, ed. 2, pp 179–199, focus on literature
  • Wilentz, Sean. The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln. (2005).
  • Wiltse, Charles Maurice. The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy (1935)
  • Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution: How a Revolution Transformed a Monarchical Society into a Democratic One Unlike Any That Had Ever Existed. (1992). ISBN 0-679-40493-7
  • Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic 1776-1787 (1969)
  • Wood, Walter Kirk. "Before Republicanism: Frank Lawrence Owsley and the Search for Southern Identity, 1865-1965." Southern Studies (1995) 6(4): 65-77. ISSN 0735-8342
  • Zagari, Rosemarie. "Morals, Manners, and the Republican Mother," American Quarterly Vol. 44, nº 2 (junho de 1992), pp. 192–215 in JSTOR