Fritz Machlup

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Fritz Machlup (15 de Dezembro de 1902 – 30 de Janeiro de 1983) foi um economista austro-americano. Ele foi notável por ser um dos primeiros economistas a examinar o conhecimento como um recurso econômico.

Nascido em Wiener-Neustadt, ele adquiriu seu doutorado na Universidade de Viena. Ele fugiu do nazismo alemão para os Estados Unidos em 1933 e se tornou um cidadão estadunidense em 1940. O trabalho-chave de Machlup foi The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (A produção e distribuição do conhecimento nos Estados Unidos), de 1962, no qual é creditado com popularização o conceito de sociedade da informação. Antes de sua morte ele completou o terceiro de uma série de volumes chamados Knowledge: Its Creation, Distribution, and Economic Significance (Conhecimento: sua criação, distribuição e significância econômica). Machlup também é creditado de ter formado o Bellagio Group no início da década de 1960[1] . Este grupo foi o antecessor direto do influente corpo de consultoria financeira, o Group of Thirty, no qual ele se tornou membro em 1979.

Trabalhos principais[editar | editar código-fonte]

  • Die Goldkernwährung, 1925. (dissertação sobre Ludwig von Mises)
  • "Transfer and Price Effects", 1930, ZfN.
  • The Stock Market, Credit and Capital Formation, 1931. (online e-book)
  • "The Liquidity of Short-Term Capital", 1932, Economica.
  • "A Note on Fixed Costs", 1934, Quarterly Journal of Economics (QJE).
  • "Professor Knight and the Period of Production", 1935, Journal of Political Economy (JPE).
  • "The Commonsense of the Elasticity of Substitution", 1935, Review of Economic Studies (RES).
  • "The Rate of Interest as Cost Factor and as a Capitalization Factor", 1935, American Economic Review (AER).
  • "Why Bother with Methodology?", 1936, Economica.
  • "On the Meaning of Marginal Product", 1937, Explorations in Economics.
  • "Monopoly and Competition: A clarification of market positions", 1937, AER.
  • "Evaluation of Practical Significance of the Theory of Monopolistic Competition", 1939, AER.
  • "Period Analysis and Multiplier Theory", 1939, QJE.
  • "The Theory of Foreign Exchange", 1939-40, Economica.
  • "Eight Questions on Gold", 1941, AER.
  • "Forced or Induced Savings: An exploration into its synonyms and homonyms", 1943, Review of Economics and Statistics (REStat).
  • International Trade and the National Income Multiplier, 1943. (online e-book)
  • "Marginal Analysis and Empirical Research", 1946, AER.
  • "A Rejoinder to an Anti-Marginalist", 1947, AER.
  • "Monopolistic Wage Determination as a Part of the General Problem of Monopoly", 1947, in Wage Determination and the Economics of Liberalism.
  • "Elasticity Pessimism in International Trade", 1950, Economia Internazionale.
  • "Three Concepts of the Balance of Payments and the So-Called Dollar Shortage", 1950, The Economic Journal (EJ).
  • "Schumpeter's Economic Methodology", 1951, REStat.
  • The Political Economy of Monopoly, 1952 (online e-book).
  • "The Characteristics and Classification of Oligopoly", 1952, Kyklos.
  • The Economics of Sellers' Competition, 1952 (online e-book).
  • "Dollar Shortage and Disparities in the Growth of Productivity", 1954, Scottish JPE.
  • "The Problem of Verification in Economics", 1955, Southern EJ.
  • "Characteristics and Types of Price Discrimination", 1955, in Stigler, editor, Business Concentration and Price Policies.
  • "Relative Prices and Aggregate Spending in the Analysis of Devaluation", 1955, AER.
  • "The Inferiority Complex of the Social Sciences", 1956, in Sennholz, editor, On Freedom and Free Enterprise.
  • "The Terms-of-Trade Effects of Devaluation upon Real Income and the Balance of Trade", 1956, Kyklos.
  • "Professor Hicks' Revision of Demand Theory", 1957, AER.
  • "Disputes, Paradoxes and Dilemmas Concerning Economic Development", 1957, RISE.
  • "Equilibrium and Disequilibrium: Misplaced concreteness and disguised politics", 1958, EJ.
  • "Can There Be Too Much Research?", 1958, Science.
  • "Structure and Structural Change: Weaselwords and jargon", 1958, ZfN.
  • "The Optimum Lag of Imitation Behind Innovation", 1958, Festskrift til Frederik Zeuthen.
  • "Statics and Dynamics: Kaleidoscopic words", 1959, Southern EJ.
  • Micro and Macro-Economics: Contested boundaries and claims of superiority, 1960.
  • "Operational Concepts and Mental Constructs in Model and Theory Formation", 1960, GdE.
  • "The Supply of Inventors and Inventions", 1960, WWA.
  • "Another View of Cost-Push and Demand-Pull Inflation", 1960, REStat.
  • "Are the Social Sciences Really Inferior?", 1961, Southern EJ.
  • The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States, 1962.
  • Essays in Economic Semantics, 1963.
  • "Why Economists Disagree", 1964, Proceedings of APS.
  • International Payments, Debts and Gold, 1964.
  • "The Cloakroom Rule of International Reserve Creation and Resources Transfer", 1965, QJE.
  • "Adjustment, Compensatory Correction and Financing of Imbalances in International Payments", 1965, in Baldwin et al., Trade, Growth and the Balance of Payments.
  • "The Need for Monetary Reserves", 1966, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, Quarterly Review (BNLQR).
  • "Operationalism and Pure Theory in Economics", in Krupp, editor, The Structure of Economics.
  • "Corporate Management, National Interest and Behavioral Theory", 1967, JPE.
  • "Theories of the Firm: Marginalist, behavioral and managerial", 1967, AER.
  • "If Matter Could Talk", 1969, in Morgenbesser et al., editors, Philosophy, Science and Methodology.
  • "Liberalism and Choice of Freedoms", 1969, in Streissler et al., editors, Roads to Freedom: Essays in honor of Friedrich A. von Hayek.
  • "Eurodollar Creation: A mystery story", 1970, BNLQR.
  • "Homo Oeconomicus and His Class Mates", 1970, in Natanson, editor, Phenomenology and Social Reality.
  • "The Universal Bogey", 1972, in Preston and Corry, editors, Essays in Honor of Lord Robbins.
  • "Friedrich von Hayek's Contributions to Economics", 1974, Swedish JE.
  • "A History of Thought on Economic Integration", 1977, Columbia University Press.

Referências[editar | editar código-fonte]

  1. Gottfried Haberler. Fritz Machlup: In Memoriam Cato Journal Cato Institute.


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