Medalha Hughes

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A Medalha Hughes é uma medalha de prata entregue anualmente pela Royal Society de Londres, desde 1902, para distinguir “descobertas originais nas ciências físicas, em particular na electricidade e magnetismo, ou suas aplicações”. A medalha é acompanhada por um prémio monetário de mil libras.

Este prémio foi instituído em homenagem a David Edward Hughes (1831-1900), inventor do telégrafo com teclado alfabético e impressor.

Agraciados[1][editar | editar código-fonte]

Ano Nome Análise racional Notas
1902 Thomson, Joseph JohnJoseph John Thomson "Por suas inúmeras contribuições para a ciência elétrica, especialmente em referência aos fenômenos da descarga elétrica em gases" [2]
1903 Hittorf, Johann WilhelmJohann Wilhelm Hittorf "Por seus longos anos contínuos na dedicação de pesquisas experimentais sobre a descarga elétrica em líquidos e gases" [3]
1904 , Joseph Wilson SwanJoseph Wilson Swan "por sua invenção; A lâmpada incandescente, e suas outras invenções e melhorias nas aplicações práticas da eletricidade" [4]
1905 Righi, AugustoAugusto Righi "por suas pesquisas experimentais em ciência elétrica, incluindo vibrações elétricas" [5]
1906 Ayrton, Hertha MarksHertha Marks Ayrton "for her experimental investigations on the electric arc, and also on sand ripples" [6]
1907 Griffiths, Ernest HowardErnest Howard Griffiths "for his contributions to exact physical measurement" [7]
1908 Goldstein, EugenEugen Goldstein "for his discoveries on the nature of electric discharge in rarefied gasses" [8]
1909 Glazebrook, RichardRichard Glazebrook "for his researches on electrical standards" [9][10]
1910 Fleming, John AmbroseJohn Ambrose Fleming "for his researches in electricity and electrical measurements" [11]
1911 Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson "for his work on nuclei in dust-free air, and his work on ions in gases and atmospheric electricity" [12]
1912 Duddell, WilliamWilliam Duddell "for his investigations in technical electricity" [13]
1913 Bell, Alexander GrahamAlexander Graham Bell "for his share in the invention of the telephone, and more especially the construction of the telephone receiver" [14]
1914 Townsend, John SealyJohn Sealy Townsend "for his researches on electric induction in gases" [15]
1915 Langevin, PaulPaul Langevin "for his important contributions to, and pre-eminent position in, electrical science" [16]
1916 Thomson, ElihuElihu Thomson "for his researches in experimental electricity" [17]
1917 Barkla, Charles GloverCharles Glover Barkla "for his researches in connexion with X-ray radiation" [18]
1918 Langmuir, IrvingIrving Langmuir "for his researches in molecular physics" [19]
1919 Chree, CharlesCharles Chree "for his researches in terrestrial magnetism" [20]
1920 Richardson, Owen WillansOwen Willans Richardson "for his work in experimental physics, and especially thermionics" [21]
1921 Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr "for his research in theoretical physics" [22]
1922 , Francis William AstonFrancis William Aston "for his discovery of isotopes of a large number of the elements by the method of positive rays" [23]
1923 Millikan, Robert AndrewsRobert Andrews Millikan "for his determination of the electronic charge and of other physical constants" [24]
1924 Não houve premiação
1925 Smith, Frank EdwardFrank Edward Smith "for his determination of fundamental electrical units and for researches in technical electricity" [25]
1926 Jackson, Henry BradwardineHenry Bradwardine Jackson "for his pioneer work in the scientific investigations of radiotelegraphy and its application to navigation" [26]
1927 David Coolidge, WilliamWilliam David Coolidge "for his work on the X-rays and the development of highly efficient apparatus for their production" [27]
1928 Broglie, Maurice deMaurice de Broglie "for his work on X-ray spectra" [28]
1929 Geiger, HansHans Geiger "for his invention and development of methods of counting alpha and beta particles" [29]
1930 Raman, Chandrasekhara VenkataChandrasekhara Venkata Raman "for his studies on the abnormal scattering of light" [30]
1931 Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg "for his pioneer work on the elucidation of crystal structure by X-ray analysis" [31]
1932 Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick "for his researches on radioactivity" [32]
1933 Appleton, EdwardEdward Appleton "for his researches into the effect of the Heaviside layer upon the transmission of wireless signals" [33]
1934 Siegbahn, KarlKarl Siegbahn "for his work as a physicist and technician on long-wave X-rays" [34]
1935 Davisson, ClintonClinton Davisson "for his research that resulted in the discovery of the physical existence of electron waves through long-continued investigations on the reflection of electrons from the crystal planes of nickel and other metals" [35]
1936 Schottky, WalterWalter Schottky "for his discovery of the Schrot Effect in thermionic emission and his invention of the screen-grid tetrode and a superheterodyne method of receiving wireless signals" [36]
1937 Lawrence, ErnestErnest Lawrence "for his work on the development of the cyclotron and its application to investigations of nuclear disintegration" [37]
1938 Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft e Walton, ErnestErnest Walton "for their discovery that nuclei could be disintegrated by artificially produced bombarding particles" [38]
1939 Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson "for his important discoveries in connexion with the diffraction of electrons by matter" [39]
1940 Compton, Arthur HollyArthur Holly Compton "for his discovery of the Compton Effect; and for his work on cosmic rays" [40]
1941 Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott "for his fertile application of the principles of quantum theory to many branches of physics, especially in the fields of nuclear and collision theory, in the theory of metals and in the theory of photographic emulsions" [41]
1942 Fermi, EnricoEnrico Fermi "for his outstanding contributions to the knowledge of the electrical structure of matter, his work in quantum theory, and his experimental studies of the neutron"
1943 Oliphant, MarcusMarcus Oliphant "for his distinguished work in nuclear physics and mastery of methods of generating and applying high potentials" [42]
1944 Finch, GeorgeGeorge Finch "for his fundamental contributions to the study of the structure and properties of surfaces, and for his important work on the electrical ignition of gases" [43]
1945 Schonland, BasilBasil Schonland "for his work on atmospheric electricity and of other physical researches" [44]
1946 Randall, JohnJohn Randall "for his distinguished researches into fluorescent materials and into the production of high frequency electro-magnetic radiation"
1947 Joliot-Curie, FrédéricFrédéric Joliot-Curie "for his distinguished contributions to nuclear physics, particularly the discovery of artificial radioactivity and of neutron emission in the fission process" [45]
1948 Watson-Watt, RobertRobert Watson-Watt "for his distinguished contributions to atmospheric physics and to the development of radar"
1949 Powell, CecilCecil Powell "for his distinguished work on the photography of particle tracks, and in connexion with the discovery of mesons and their transformation" [46]
1950 Born, MaxMax Born "for his contributions to theoretical physics in general and to the development of quantum mechanics in particular" [47]
1951 Kramers, HendrikHendrik Kramers "for his distinguished work on the quantum theory, particularly its application to the optical and magnetic properties of matter"
1952 Dee, PhilipPhilip Dee "particularly for his distinguished studies on the disintegration of atomic nuclei, particularly those using the Wilson cloud chamber technique"
1953 Bullard, Edward CrispEdward Crisp Bullard "for his important contributions to the development, both theoretical and experimental, of the physics of the Earth" [48]
1954 Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle "for his distinguished and original experimental researches in radio astronomy" [49]
1955 Massey, HarrieHarrie Massey "for his distinguished contributions to atomic and molecular physics, particularly in regard to collisions involving the production and recombination of ions"
1956 Lindemann, FrederickFrederick Lindemann "for his distinguished work in many fields: the meting point formula and theory of specific heats; ionisation of stars; meteors and temperature inversion in the stratosphere" [50]
1957 Proudman, JosephJoseph Proudman "for his distinguished work on dynamical oceanography" [51]
1958 Andrade, EdwardEdward Andrade "for his distinguished contributions to many branches of classical physics"
1959 Pippard, BrianBrian Pippard "for his distinguished contributions in the field of low temperature physics"
1960 Pawsey, JosephJoseph Pawsey "for his distinguished contributions to radio astronomy both in the study of solar and of cosmic ray emission"
1961 Cottrell, AlanAlan Cottrell "for his distinguished work on the physical properties of metals, particularly in relation to mechanical deformation and to the effects of irradiation" [52]
1962 Bleaney, BrebisBrebis Bleaney "for his distinguished studies of electrical and magnetic phenomena and their correlation with atomic and molecular properties" [53]
1963 Williams, Frederic CallandFrederic Calland Williams "for distinguished work on early computers"
1964 Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam "for his distinguished contributions to quantum mechanics and the theory of fundamental particles" [54]
1965 Wilkinson, DenysDenys Wilkinson "for his distinguished experimental and theoretical investigation in nuclear structure and high energy physics"
1966 Kemmer, NicholasNicholas Kemmer "for his numerous discoveries of major importance in theoretical nuclear physics which he has made" [55]
1967 Mendelssohn, KurtKurt Mendelssohn "for his distinguished contributions to cryophysics, especially his discoveries in superconductivity and superfluidity" [56]
1968 Dyson, FreemanFreeman Dyson "for his distinguished fundamental work in theoretical physics, and especially on quantum electrodynamics" [57]
1969 Kurti, NicholasNicholas Kurti "for his distinguished work in low-temperature physics and in thermodynamics" [58]
1970 Bates, DavidDavid Bates "for his distinguished contributions to theoretical atomic and molecular physics and its applications to atmospheric physics, plasma physics and astrophysics" [59]
1971 Brown, Robert HanburyRobert Hanbury Brown "Robert Hanbury Brown, for his distinguished work in developing a new form of stellar interfrometer, culminating in his observations of alpha virginis" [60]
1972 Josephson, Brian DavidBrian David Josephson "particularly for his discovery of the remarkable properties of junctions between superconducting materials" [61]
1973 Hirsch, PeterPeter Hirsch "for his distinguished contributions to the development of the electron microscope thin film technique for the study of crystal defects and its application to a very wide range of problems in materials science and metallurgy" [62]
1974 Fowler, PeterPeter Fowler "for his outstanding contributions to cosmic ray and elementary particle physics" [63]
1975 Dalitz, RichardRichard Dalitz "for his distinguished contributions to the development of the electron microscope thin film technique for the study of crystal defects and its application to a very wide range of problems in materials science and metallurgy" [64]
1976 Hawking, StephenStephen Hawking "for his distinguished contributions to the application of general relativity to astrophysics, especially to the behaviour of highly condensed matter" [65]
1977 Hewish, AntonyAntony Hewish "for his outstanding contributions to radioastronomy, including the discovery and identification of pulsars" [66]
1978 Cochran, WilliamWilliam Cochran "for his pioneering contributions to the science of X-ray crystallography, in which his work has made a profound impact on its development and application, and for his original contributions to lattice dynamics and its relation to phase transitions, which stimulated a new and fruitful field of results" [67]
1979 Robert, WilliamsWilliams Robert "for his distinguished studies of the conformations of computer molecules in solution by the use of nuclear magnetic resonance" [68]
1980 Farley, FrancisFrancis Farley "for his ultra-precise measurements of the muon magnetic moment, a severe test of quantum electrodynamics and of the nature of the muon"
1981 Higgs, PeterPeter Higgs e Kibble, TomTom Kibble "for their international contributions about the spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries in elementary-particle theory" [69]
1982 Matthews, Drummond HoyleDrummond Hoyle Matthews e Vine, FrederickFrederick Vine "for their elucidation of the magnetic properties of the ocean floors which subsequently led to the plate tectonic hypothesis" [70]
1983 Ward, JohnJohn Ward "for his highly influential and original contributions to quantum field theory, particularly the Ward identity and the Salam-Ward theory of weak interactions" [71]
1984 Kerr, RoyRoy Kerr "for his distinguished work on relativity, especially for his discovery of the so-called Kerr Black Hole, which has been very influential" [72]
1985 Skyrme, TonyTony Skyrme "for his contributions to theoretical particle and nuclear physics, and his discovery that particle-like entities simulating the properties of baryons can occur in non-linear meson field theories"
1986 Woolfson, MichaelMichael Woolfson "for the creation of algorithms including MULTAN and SAYTAN which are used world-wide to solve the majority of reported crystal structures"
1987 Pepper, MichaelMichael Pepper "for his many important experimental investigations into the fundamental properties of semiconductors especially low-dimensional systems, where he has elucidated some of their unusual properties like electron localization and the Quantum Hall effects"
1988 Howie, ArchibaldArchibald Howie e Whelan, Michael JohnMichael John Whelan "for their contributions to the theory of electron diffraction and microscopy, and its application to the study of lattice defects in crystals"
1989 Bell, John StewartJohn Stewart Bell "for his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the structure and interpretation of quantum theory, in particular demonstrating the unique nature of its predictions" [73]
1990 Cowling, Thomas GeorgeThomas George Cowling "for his fundamental contributions to theoretical astrophysics including seminal theoretical studies of the role of electromagnetic induction in cosmic systems" [74]
1991 Moon, Philip BurtonPhilip Burton Moon "for his contributions in three main areas of science — nuclear physics, the discovery of gamma-ray resonances, and the use of colliding molecular beams to study chemical reactions" [75]
1992 Seaton, MichaelMichael Seaton "for his theoretical research in atomic physics and leadership of the Opacity Project" [71]
1993 Isaak, GeorgeGeorge Isaak "for his pioneering use of resonant scattering techniques to make extremely precise measures of Doppler velocity shifts in the solar photosphere" [76]
1994 Chambers, Robert G.Robert G. Chambers "for his many contributions to solid-state physics, in particular his ingenious and technically demanding experiment which verified the Ahoronov-Bohm effect concerning the behaviour of charged particles in magnetic fields"
1995 Shoenberg, DavidDavid Shoenberg "for his work on the electronic structure of solids, in particular by exploiting low temperature techniques, particularly the De Haas Van Alphen effect, defining the Fermi surface of many metals"
1996 Buckingham, AmyandAmyand Buckingham "for his contributions to chemical physics, in particular to long-range intermolecular forces, non-linear optics, problems related to the polarizability of the helium atom, the interpretation of NMR spectra, and the applications of ab initio computations" [77]
1997 Lang, AndrewAndrew Lang "for his fundamental work on X-ray diffraction physics and for his developments of the techniques of X-ray topography, in particular in studying defects in crystal structures" [78]
1998 Hide, RaymondRaymond Hide "for his distinguished experimental and theoretical investigations of the hydrodynamics of rotating fluids and the application of such basic studies to the understanding of motions in the atmosphere and interiors of the major planets" [79]
1999 Boksenberg, AlexanderAlexander Boksenberg "for his landmark discoveries concerning the nature of active galactic nuclei, the physics of the intergalactic medium and of the interstellar gas in primordial galaxies. He is noted also for his exceptional contributions to the development of astronomical instrumentation including the Image Photon Counting System, a revolutionary electronic area detector for the detection of faint sources, which gave a major impetus to optical astronomy in the United Kingdom" [80]
2000 Rao, ChintamaniChintamani Rao "for his contributions to the field of materials chemistry, in particular, in relation to studies of the electronic and magnetic properties of transition metal oxides and high temperature superconductors. His work has been an inspiration to a generation of Indian scientists" [81]
2001 Pethica, JohnJohn Pethica "for his contributions to the field of nanometre and atomic scale mechanics. He invented and developed the technique of nanoindentation thereby revolutionising the mechanical characterisation of ultra-small volumes of materials. This has had a major influence on those industries concerned with thin film and coating technologies" [82]
2002 Dalgarno, AlexanderAlexander Dalgarno "for his contributions to the theory of atomic and molecular process, and in particular its application to astrophysics. His studies of energy depositions provide the key to understanding emissions from terrestrial aurorae, planetary atmospheres and comets"
2003 Edwards, PeterPeter Edwards "for his distinguished work as a solid state chemist. He has made seminal contributions to fields including superconductivity and the behaviour of metal nanoparticles, and has greatly advanced our understanding of the phenomenology of the metal-insulator transition" [83]
2004 Clarke, JohnJohn Clarke "for his outstanding research, leading the world in the invention, building and development of innovative new Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUID), in their theory and in their application to a plethora of fundamental problems and their investigative tools"
2005 Moffatt, KeithKeith Moffatt "for his contributions to the understanding of magnetohydrodynamics, especially to the mechanisms determining how magnetic fields can develop from a low background level to substantial amplitude" [84]
2006 Kelly, MichaelMichael Kelly "for his work in the fundamental physics of electron transport and the creation of practical electronic devices which can be deployed in advanced systems"
2007 Ekert, ArturArtur Ekert "for his pioneering work on quantum cryptography and his many important contributions to the theory of quantum computation and other branches of quantum physics" [85]
2008 Dougherty, MicheleMichele Dougherty "for innovative use of magnetic field data that led to discovery of an atmosphere around one of Saturn's moons and the way it revolutionised our view of the role of planetary moons in the Solar System"
2010 Geim, AndreAndre Geim "for his revolutionary discovery of graphene, and elucidation of its remarkable properties" [86]
2011 Rosseinsky, MatthewMatthew Rosseinsky "for his influential discoveries in the synthetic chemistry of solid state electronic materials and novel microporous structures" [87]
2013 Sirringhaus, HenningHenning Sirringhaus "for his pioneering development of inkjet printing processes for organic semiconductor devices, and dramatic improvement of their functioning and efficiency" [88]
2015 George Efstathiou

Referências

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