Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade

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Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade
A medalha presidencial da liberdade
Classificação
País  Estados Unidos
Outorgante Presidente dos Estados Unidos
Criação 1945
Tipo Ordem honorífica
Descritivo "Uma contribuição meritória para com a segurança ou interesse nacionais dos Estados Unidos, a paz mundial, ou outros empenhos culturais significativos públicos ou privados."[1]
Agraciamento Civis e Militares
Condição Em uso
Histórico
Primeira concessão 1946
Premiados 257[2]
Hierarquia
Superior a Presidential Citizens Medal
Imagem complementar Ribbon of Presidential Medal of Freedom

Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade (em inglês: Presidential Medal of Freedom) é uma condecoração concedida pelo presidente dos Estados Unidos e é, junto com a equivalente Medalha de Ouro do Congresso (concedida por um ato do Congresso dos Estados Unidos), a maior condecoração civil dos Estados Unidos. É projetada para reconhecer os indivíduos que fizeram "uma contribuição especial meritória à segurança ou interesses nacionais dos Estados Unidos, paz mundial, cultural ou outras importantes iniciativas públicas e privadas." Embora seja um prêmio civil criado por uma ordem executiva, também pode ser dada a militares e levada no uniforme.

História[editar | editar código-fonte]

De nome similar ao da extinta Medalha da Liberdade - criada por Harry S. Truman em 1945 em honra aos civis que participaram da Segunda Guerra Mundial,[3] porém muito mais parecida em significado com a Medalha Presidencial por Mérito: a Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade é atualmente a mais alta condecoração civil dos Estados Unidos, concedida pelo Presidente em pessoa.[2]

A condecoração foi estabelecida por John Kennedy em 1963 pela "Ordem Executiva 11085" ("Executive Order 11085"), com insígnia única e distintiva, objetivo extenso e mais alto prestígio. Foi a primeira condecoração do país em forma de colar e até hoje permanece como a única condecoração a incluir uma estrela e faixa. A Ordem Executiva sobre a criação da medalha recomenda que esta seja entregue anualmente no mês de julho - especialmente em 4 de julho, aniversário da Independência.[4] Entretanto, ao longo da história, a medalha não foi entregue em alguns anos. Os agraciados são selecionados pelo Presidente em pessoa ou com base nas recomendações de cargos políticos próximos.

Um cidadão pode receber a medalha mais de uma vez (John Kenneth Galbraith e Colin Powell receberam duas medalhas cada um). Além disso, a honraria pode ser concedida postumamente em forma de tributo, como nos casos de Lyndon Johnson, Neil Armstrong e o próprio John Kennedy.

Presidential-medal-of-freedom.jpg

Artes[editar | editar código-fonte]

Arquitetura[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson [5]
Buckminster Fuller 1983 Ronald Reagan
Ieoh Ming Pei 1993 George H.W. Bush [6]

Arte[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Andrew Wyeth 1963 John F. Kennedy
Willem de Kooning 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Alexander Calder 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford prêmio póstumo[7]
Georgia O'Keeffe 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford [8]
Norman Rockwell 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford O filho de Rockwell, Jarvis, recebeu o prêmio[9]
Roger Lacey Stevens 1988 Ronald Reagan
Jasper Johns 2011 Barack Obama [10]

Dança[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Alvin Ailey 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama prêmio póstumo[11]
Martha Graham 14 de outubro de 1976 Gerald Ford Premiado com Distinção[12]
Lucia Chase 1980 Jimmy Carter
George Balanchine 1983 Ronald Reagan
Lincoln Kirstein 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [13]
Chita Rivera 12 de agosto de 2009 Barack Obama [14]

Filme[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Lucille Ball 7 de julho de 1989 George H.W. Bush Prêmio póstumo[15]
James Cagney 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [16]
Doris Day 23 de junho de 2004 George W. Bush [2]
Walt Disney 14 de setembro de 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson Descrito como "Mr. Walter Disney"[17]
Kirk Douglas 1981 Ronald Reagan
Lynn Fontanne 14 de setembro de 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson [18]
John Ford 1973 Richard Nixon
Samuel Goldwyn 1971 Richard Nixon
Helen Hayes 1986 Ronald Reagan
Audrey Hepburn 1992 George H.W. Bush
Charlton Heston 23 de julho de 2003 George W. Bush [2]
Bob Hope 1969 Richard Nixon
Danny Kaye 1987 Ronald Reagan Prêmio póstumo
Alfred Lunt 14 de setembro de 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson [18]
Rita Moreno 23 de junho de 2004 George W. Bush [2]
Gregory Peck 1969 Richard Nixon
Sidney Poitier 2009 August 12 Barack Obama [2]
Martha Raye 2 de novembro de 1993 Bill Clinton [2]
Steven Spielberg 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Meryl Streep 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama [11]
Barbra Streisand 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
James Stewart 1985 Ronald Reagan
Marlo Thomas 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama [11]
Lew Wasserman 29 de setembro de 1995 Bill Clinton [2]
John Wayne 9 de junho de 1980 Jimmy Carter prêmio póstumo[20]
Robert de Niro 22 de novembro de 2016 Barack Obama
Tom Hanks 22 de novembro de 2016 Barack Obama
Robert Redford 22 de novembro de 2016 Barack Obama

Literatura[editar | editar código-fonte]

Harper Lee, 2007
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Isabel Allende 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama [11]
Maya Angelou 2011 Barack Obama [10]
Jacques Barzun 2003 George W. Bush
James Burnham 1983 Ronald Reagan
James Frank Dobie 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
T. S. Eliot 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Ralph Ellison 1969 Richard Nixon
Eric Hoffer 1982 Ronald Reagan
Louis L'Amour 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [21]
Harper Lee 5 de novembro de 2007 George W. Bush
Archibald MacLeish 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford Roderick MacLeish, sobrinho de Archibald, aceitou o prêmio[22]
James A. Michener 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford Nomeado como James Albert Michener sobre a citação do prêmio[23]
Toni Morrison 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Carl Sandburg 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
John Steinbeck 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Robert Penn Warren 1980 Jimmy Carter
Eudora Welty 1980 Jimmy Carter
E.B. White 1963 John F. Kennedy
Elie Wiesel 1992 George H.W. Bush
Thornton Wilder 1963 John F. Kennedy
Tennessee Williams 1980 Jimmy Carter
Edmund Wilson 1963 John F. Kennedy
Albert Wohlstetter 1985 Ronald Reagan

Música[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Marian Anderson 1963 John F. Kennedy [25]
Pearl Bailey 1988 Ronald Reagan
'Count' Basie 1985 Ronald Reagan prêmio póstumo
Irving Berlin 1977 Jimmy Carter
James "Eubie" Blake 1981 Ronald Reagan
Pau Casals 1963 John F. Kennedy
Van Cliburn 2003 George W. Bush
Aaron Copland 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Plácido Domingo 2002 George W. Bush
Bob Dylan 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Duke Ellington 1969 Richard Nixon
Emilio Estefan 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Gloria Estefan 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Arthur Fiedler 1977 Jimmy Carter
Ella Fitzgerald 1992 George H.W. Bush
Ernest Jennings "Tennessee Ernie" Ford 1984 Ronald Reagan [26]
Aretha Franklin 2005 George W. Bush
Vladimir Horowitz 1986 Ronald Reagan
B. B. King 2006 George W. Bush
Loretta Lynn 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Yo-Yo Ma 2011 Barack Obama [10]
Mabel Mercer 1983 Ronald Reagan
Eugene Ormandy 1970 Richard Nixon
Itzhak Perlman 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Leontyne Price 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Mstislav Rostropovich 1987 Ronald Reagan
Arthur Rubinstein 1976 Gerald Ford Premiado com Distinção
Arturo Sandoval 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Rudolf Serkin 1963 John F. Kennedy
Beverly Sills 1980 Jimmy Carter
Frank Sinatra 1985 Ronald Reagan
Kate Smith 1982 Ronald Reagan
Stephen Sondheim 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [11]
Isaac Stern 1992 George H.W. Bush
Barbra Streisand 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
James Taylor 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Meredith Willson 1987 Ronald Reagan prêmio póstumo
Stevie Wonder 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama [11]
Diana Ross 22 de novembro de 2016 Barack Obama
Bruce Springsteeen 22 de novembro de 2016 Barack Obama

Fotografia[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Edwin H. Land 1963 John F. Kennedy
Edward Steichen 1963 John F. Kennedy
Ansel Adams 1980 Jimmy Carter

Economia e negócios[editar | editar código-fonte]

Alan Greenspan, 2005
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Iorwith Wilbur Abel 1977 Jimmy Carter
Walter Annenberg 1986 Ronald Reagan
Gary Becker 2007 George W. Bush
Edgar Bronfman, Sr. 1999 Bill Clinton
Irving Brown 1988 Ronald Reagan
Warren Buffett 2011 Barack Obama [10]
James E. Burke 2000 Bill Clinton
Edward J. DeBartolo, Sr. 1988 Ronald Reagan
Peter Drucker 2002 George W. Bush
David Dubinsky 1969 Richard Nixon
Henry Ford II 1969 Richard Nixon
Milton Friedman 1988 Ronald Reagan
John Kenneth Galbraith 2000 Bill Clinton
Alan Greenspan 2005 George W. Bush
Bryce Harlow 1981 Ronald Reagan
Friedrich Hayek 1991 George H.W. Bush
Paul G. Hoffman 1974 Gerald Ford
Edgar Kaiser 1969 Richard Nixon
Frederick Kappel 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Lane Kirkland 1994 Bill Clinton
Daniel Kahneman 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Estée Lauder 2004 George W. Bush
John L. Lewis 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
J. Willard Marriott 1988 Ronald Reagan prêmio póstumo
David Packard 1988 Ronald Reagan
Clarence B. Randall 1963 John F. Kennedy
Walter Reuther 1995 Bill Clinton prêmio póstumo
David Rockefeller 1998 Bill Clinton
Laurance Rockefeller 1969 Richard Nixon
James Rouse 1995 Bill Clinton
Robert Solow 2014 Barack Obama
John J. Sweeney 2011 Barack Obama [10]
Dave Thomas 2003 George W. Bush prêmio póstumo
Tex Thornton 1981 Ronald Reagan
Juan Trippe 1985 Ronald Reagan prêmio póstumo
Sam Walton 1992 George H.W. Bush
An Wang 1986 Ronald Reagan
Thomas Watson, Jr. 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Justin Whitlock Dart 1987 Ronald Reagan prêmio póstumo
Walter B. Wriston 2004 George W. Bush
Muhammad Yunus 2009 Barack Obama

Computação[editar | editar código-fonte]

Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn, 2005
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Gordon Moore 9 de julho de 2002 George W. Bush [28]
Vinton Cerf 9 de novembro de 2005 George W. Bush [29]
Robert Kahn 9 de novembro de 2005 George W. Bush [30]

Educação[editar | editar código-fonte]

Norman Francis, 2006
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Detlev Bronk 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Genevieve Caulfield 1963 John F. Kennedy
James E. Cheek 1983 Ronald Reagan
Ruth Johnson Colvin 2006 George W. Bush
James Bryant Conant 1963 John F. Kennedy Premiado com Distinção
Norman Francis 2006 George W. Bush
Hanna Holborn Gray 1991 George H.W. Bush
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C. 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Jerome H. Holland 1985 Ronald Reagan prêmio póstumo
Karl Holton 1963 John F. Kennedy
Margaret McNamara 1981 Ronald Reagan
Alexander Meiklejohn 1963 John F. Kennedy
Antonia Pantoja 1996 Bill Clinton
Frederick Patterson 1987 Ronald Reagan
George W. Taylor 1963 John F. Kennedy
Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson (The Lubavitch Rebbe) 1994 Bill Clinton
Almirante Hyman G. Rickover 1980 Jimmy Carter

História[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Bruce Catton 1977 Jimmy Carter
Robert Conquest 2005 George W. Bush
Ariel Durant 1977 Jimmy Carter
Will Durant 1977 Jimmy Carter
John Hope Franklin 1995 Bill Clinton
Vartan Gregorian 2004 George W. Bush
Dumas Malone 1983 Ronald Reagan
David McCullough 2006 George W. Bush
Samuel Eliot Morison 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Roberta Wohlstetter 1985 Ronald Reagan

Humanitarismo[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Norman Borlaug 1977 Jimmy Carter
Nancy Brinker 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Bonnie Carroll 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Millard Fuller 1996 Bill Clinton
John William Gardner 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Frances Hesselbein 1998 Bill Clinton
Gerda Weissmann Klein 2011 Barack Obama [10]
Juliette Gordon Low 2012 Barack Obama prêmio póstumo[24]
Paul Rusesabagina 2005 George W. Bush
Eunice Kennedy Shriver 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [31]
Leon Sullivan 1991 George H.W. Bush
Annie D. Wauneka 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson [32]

Media[editar | editar código-fonte]

William Safire, 2006.
Paul Harvey, 2005
Andy Griffith, 2005
Destinatários Data Contribuições para Presidente Notas
Ellen DeGeneres 2016 Televisão Barack Obama
Robert Leroy Bartley 2004 Jornalismo George W. Bush
Earl Charles Behrens 1970 Jornalismo Richard Nixon [33]
Herbert L. Block 1994 Jornalismo Bill Clinton
Ben Bradlee 2013 Jornalismo Barack Obama [27]
Tom Brokaw 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama [11]
William F. Buckley, Jr. 1991 Jornalismo George H.W. Bush
Walter Cronkite 1981 Jornalismo Ronald Reagan
Edward T. Folliard 1970 Jornalismo Richard Nixon [33]
Katharine Graham 2002 Jornalismo George W. Bush prêmio póstumo
William M. Henry 1970 Jornalismo Richard Nixon [33]
John H. Johnson 1996 Jornalismo Bill Clinton
Paul Johnson 2006 Jornalismo George W. Bush
Arthur Krock 1970 Jornalismo Richard Nixon [33]
David Lawrence 1970 Jornalismo Richard Nixon [33]
George Gould Lincoln 1970 Jornalismo Richard Nixon [33]
Walter Lippmann 1964 Jornalismo Lyndon B. Johnson
Ralph McGill 1964 Jornalismo Lyndon B. Johnson
Raymond Moley 1970 Jornalismo Richard Nixon [33]
Edward R. Murrow 1964 Jornalismo Lyndon B. Johnson Premiado com Distinção
Frank Reynolds 1985 Jornalismo Ronald Reagan prêmio póstumo
Abe Rosenthal 2002 Jornalismo George W. Bush
Vermont C. Royster 1986 Jornalismo Ronald Reagan
William Safire 2006 Jornalismo George W. Bush
Albert Merriman Smith 1967 Jornalismo Lyndon B. Johnson
Adela Rogers St. Johns 1970 Jornalismo Richard Nixon [33]
DeWitt Wallace 1972 Jornalismo Richard Nixon
Lila Acheson Wallace 1972 Jornalismo Richard Nixon
Mark S. Watson 1963 Jornalismo John F. Kennedy
Oprah Winfrey 2013 Televisão Barack Obama [27]
William S. White 1969 Jornalismo Richard Nixon
Lowell Thomas 1977 Rádio Jimmy Carter [34]
Paul Harvey 2005 Rádio George W. Bush [2]
Lucille Ball 1989 Televisão George H.W. Bush prêmio póstumo[15]
David Brinkley 1992 Televisão George H.W. Bush
Carol Burnett 2005 Television George H.W. Bush [2]
Johnny Carson 1992 Televisão George H.W. Bush
Peggy Charren 1995 Televisão Bill Clinton [2]
Julia Child 2003 Televisão George W. Bush
Joan Ganz Cooney 1995 Televisão Bill Clinton [2]
Bill Cosby 2002 Televisão George W. Bush [2]
Andy Griffith 2005 Televisião George W. Bush [2]
Brian P. Lamb 2007 Television George W. Bush [2]
Fred Rogers 2002 Televisão George W. Bush [2]

Medicina[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Ben Carson 2008 George W. Bush
Denton Cooley 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [35]
Michael DeBakey 1969 Richard Nixon
Lena Frances Edwards 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
John Franklin Enders 1963 John F. Kennedy
Anthony Fauci 2008 George W. Bush
William Foege 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Pedro José Greer 2009 Barack Obama [14]
David Hamburg 1996 Bill Clinton
Donald Henderson 2002 George W. Bush
Charles Everett Koop 1995 Bill Clinton
Tom Little 2011 Barack Obama póstumo[10]
Charles LeRoy Lowman 1974 Gerald Ford
Karl Menninger 1981 Ronald Reagan
Arnall Patz 2004 George W. Bush
Janet Rowley 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Albert Sabin 1986 Ronald Reagan
Jonas Salk 1977 Jimmy Carter
Helen Taussig 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
William Bertalan Walsh 1987 Ronald Reagan
Paul Dudley White 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson

Filantropia[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
J. Clifford MacDonald 1963 John F. Kennedy
Lowell Thomas 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford [34]
Catherine Filene Shouse 1977 Jimmy Carter
Morris I. Leibman 1981 Ronald Reagan
Brooke Astor 1998 Bill Clinton
Zachary Fisher 1998 Bill Clinton
Eugene Lang 1996 Bill Clinton
Ronnie Eugene Ford 1978 Jimmy Carter

Filosofia[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Will Durant 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford [36]
Sidney Hook 1985 Ronald Reagan
Friedrich Hayek 1991 George H.W. Bush

Política e governo[editar | editar código-fonte]

Ativismo[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Elouise Cobell 2016 Barack Obama Postumamente
Arnold Aronson 1998 Bill Clinton
Roger Nash Baldwin 1981 Ronald Reagan
Oscar Elias Biscet 2007 George W. Bush
James Chaney 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama Postumamente[11]
César Chávez 1994 Bill Clinton Postumamente
Justin Whitlock Dart, Jr. 1998 Bill Clinton
Evelyn Dubrow 1999 Bill Clinton
Marian Wright Edelman 2000 August 9 Bill Clinton [37]
James L. Farmer, Jr. 1998 Bill Clinton
Billy Frank, Jr. 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama Postumamente[19]
Hector Garcia 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [38]
Andrew Goodman 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama Postumamente[11]
Suzan Shown Harjo 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama [11]
Dorothy Height 1994 Bill Clinton
George G. Higgins 2000 Bill Clinton
Gordon Hirabayashi 2012 Barack Obama Postumamente[24]
Benjamin Hooks 2007 George W. Bush
Dolores Huerta 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Rev. Jesse Jackson 2000 Bill Clinton
Millie Jeffrey 2000 Bill Clinton
Helen Keller 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Ethel Kennedy 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama [11]
Martin Luther King, Jr. 1977 Jimmy Carter Postumamente
Fred Korematsu 1998 Bill Clinton
Mary Lasker 1969 Richard Nixon
Rev. Joseph Lowery 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Sylvia Mendez 2011 Barack Obama [10]
Harvey Milk 2009 Barack Obama Postumamente[14]
Clarence M. Mitchell 1980 Jimmy Carter
Mario G. Obledo 1998 Bill Clinton
Rosa Parks 1996 Bill Clinton
Esther Peterson 1981 Ronald Reagan
Bayard Rustin 2013 Barack Obama Postumamente[27]
Ginetta Sagan 1996 Bill Clinton
Michael Schwerner 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama Postumamente[11]
Natan Sharansky 2006 George W. Bush
Gloria Steinem 2013 Barack Obama [27]
William C. Velasquez 1995 Bill Clinton Postumamente
Cordy Tindell "C.T." Vivian 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Lech Wałęsa 1989 George H.W. Bush
Roy Wilkins 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson
Minoru Yasui 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama Postumamente[19]
Andrew Young 1981 Ronald Reagan

Diplomacia[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Anne L. Armstrong 1987 Ronald Reagan
Manlio Brosio 1971 Richard Nixon
David K. E. Bruce 1976 Gerald Ford Premiado com Distinção
Ralph J. Bunche 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson Premiado com Distinção
Ellsworth Bunker 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson (Duas vezes) Premiado com Distincão [39]
Ellsworth Bunker 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson (Duas vezes) Premiado com Distinção [39]
Ryan Crocker 2009 Barack Obama [40]
General Andrew Goodpaster 1984 Ronald Reagan [41]
Philip Habib 1982 Ronald Reagan
Jan Karski 2012 Barack Obama Postumamente[24]
George F. Kennan 1989 George H.W. Bush
Jeane Kirkpatrick 1985 Ronald Reagan
Sol M. Linowitz 1998 Bill Clinton
Harry W. Shlaudeman 1992 George H.W. Bush
Gerard C. Smith 1981 Ronald Reagan
Jean Kennedy Smith 2011 Barack Obama [10]
Robert Schwarz Strauss 1981 Ronald Reagan
Llewellyn E Thompson, Jr. 1946 Harry Truman [42]

Ambientalismo[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
John H. Adams 2011 Barack Obama [10]
Horace M. Albright 1980 Jimmy Carter
Rachel Carson 1980 Jimmy Carter Postumamente
Marjory Stoneman Douglas 1993 Bill Clinton
Gilbert Melville Grosvenor 2004 George W. Bush
Margaret Murie 1998 Bill Clinton
Roger Tory Peterson 1980 Jimmy Carter
Russell E. Train 1991 George H.W. Bush
Edgar Wayburn 1999 Bill Clinton

Inteligência[editar | editar código-fonte]

George Tenet, 2004.
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Whittaker Chambers 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]
Jean MacArthur 1988 Ronald Reagan
George Tenet 2004 George W. Bush

Chefes de estado ou de governo[editar | editar código-fonte]

Tony Blair, 2009
Destinatários Data País Presidente Notas
Tony Blair 13 de janeiro de 2009 Reino Unido George W. Bush [52]
Václav Havel 2003 República Checa George W. Bush
John Howard 13 de janeiro de 2009 Austrália George W. Bush
Helmut Kohl 1999 Alemanha Bill Clinton
Joseph Luns 1984 Países Baixos Ronald Reagan
Nelson Mandela 2002 África do Sul George W. Bush
Wilma Mankiller 15 de janeiro de 1998 Nação Cherokee Bill Clinton [53]
Angela Merkel 2011 Alemanha Barack Obama [10]
Shimon Peres 2012 Israel Barack Obama [24]
Mary Robinson 2009 Irlanda Barack Obama [14]
Carlos P. Romulo 1984 Filipinas Ronald Reagan
Anwar el-Sadat 26 de março de 1984 Egito Ronald Reagan Postumamente[54]
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf 2007 Liberia George W. Bush
Margaret Thatcher 1991 Reino Unido George H.W. Bush
Álvaro Uribe 13 de janeiro de 2009 Colombia George W. Bush

Jurisprudência[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
John Doar 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Henry J. Friendly 1977 Jimmy Carter
A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr. 1995 Bill Clinton
Oliver White Hill 1999 Bill Clinton
Frank Minis Johnson 1995 Bill Clinton
Irving Robert Kaufman 1987 Ronald Reagan
Joseph Warren Madden 1947 Harry Truman
Joseph L. Rauh, Jr. 1993 Bill Clinton Postumamente
Cruz Reynoso 2000 Bill Clinton
Laurence Silberman 2008 George W. Bush
Elbert Tuttle 1981 Ronald Reagan
Patricia Wald 2013 Barack Obama [27]
John Minor Wisdom 1993 Bill Clinton

Militares[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatário Data Presidente Notas
General of the Army Omar Bradley 1977 Jimmy Carter
Admiral Arleigh Burke 1977 Jimmy Carter
General Wesley Clark 2000 Bill Clinton
Chefe de Guerra Joe Medicine Crow 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Almirante William J. Crowe 2000 Bill Clinton
Lieutenant General Jimmy Doolittle 1989 George H.W. Bush
General Tommy Franks 2004 George W. Bush
General Lyman Lemnitzer 1987 Ronald Reagan
General Richard B. Myers 2005 George W. Bush
Jan Nowak-Jeziorański 1996 Bill Clinton
General Peter Pace 2008 George W. Bush
General Colin Powell 1991 George H.W. Bush Premiado duas vezes
General Colin Powell 1993 Bill Clinton Premiado duas vezes
General Matthew B. Ridgeway 1986 Ronald Reagan
Captain Joseph Rochefort 1986 Ronald Reagan Postumamente
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf 1991 George H.W. Bush
General John Shalikashvili 1997 Bill Clinton
John Paul Vann 1972 Richard Nixon Postumamente
General John W. Vessey 1992 George H.W. Bush
James E. Webb 1969 Richard Nixon
General Albert Coady Wedemeyer 1985 Ronald Reagan
Major General Chuck Yeager 1985 Ronald Reagan
Almirante Elmo Zumwalt 1998 Bill Clinton

Juízes da Suprema Corte[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Associado de Justiça William J. Brennan, Jr. 1993 Bill Clinton
Chefe de Justiça Warren E. Burger 1988 Ronald Reagan
Associado de Justiça Felix Frankfurter 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson Premiado com Distinção
Associado de Justiça Arthur J. Goldberg 1978 Jimmy Carter
Associado de Justiça Thurgood Marshall 1993 Bill Clinton Postumamente
Associada de Justiça Sandra Day O'Connor 2009 August 12 Barack Obama [55]
Associado de Justiça John Paul Stevens 2012 Barack Obama [24]
Chefe de Justiça Earl Warren 1981 Ronald Reagan Postumamente
Associado de Justiça Byron White 2003 George W. Bush Postumamente[56]

Membros do gabinete dos EUA[editar | editar código-fonte]

Donald Rumsfeld, displaying 1977 Medal (awarded With Distinction)
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Dean Acheson 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson Premiado com Distinção
Madeleine Albright 2012 Barack Obama [24]
James Baker 1991 George H.W. Bush
Malcolm Baldrige, Jr. 1988 Ronald Reagan Postumamente
Harold Brown 1981 Ronald Reagan
Zbigniew Brzezinski 1981 Ronald Reagan
Dick Cheney, as Secretário de Defesa 3 de julho de 1991 George H.W. Bush [57]
Warren Christopher 1981 Ronald Reagan
Clark Clifford 1969 Richard Nixon Premiado com Distinção
William T. Coleman, Jr. 1995 Bill Clinton
C. Douglas Dillon 1989 George H.W. Bush
Robert Gates 2011 Barack Obama
Averell Harriman 1969 Richard Nixon Premiado com Distinção
Henry Kissinger 1977 Jimmy Carter
Melvin Laird 1974 Gerald Ford
Robert A. Lovett 1963 John F. Kennedy Premiado com Distinção
Robert S. McNamara 1968 Lyndon B. Johnson
Norman Mineta 2006 George W. Bush
William Perry 1997 Bill Clinton
Elliot Richardson 1998 Bill Clinton
William P. Rogers 1973 Richard Nixon
Donald Rumsfeld 1977 Jimmy Carter Premiado com Distinção
Dean Rusk 1969 Richard Nixon Premiado com Distinção
Donna Shalala 2008 George W. Bush
George P. Shultz 1989 George H.W. Bush
Cyrus Vance 1969 Richard Nixon
Caspar Weinberger 1987 Ronald Reagan Premiado com Distinção

Primeira-damas dos Estados Unidos[editar | editar código-fonte]

Betty Ford, 1992
Destinatárias Data Presidente Notas
Lady Bird Johnson 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford [58]
Betty Ford 18 de novembro de 1991 George H.W. Bush [59]
Rosalynn Carter 1999 August 9 Bill Clinton [2]
Nancy Reagan 9 de julho de 2002 George W. Bush [2]

Membros dos Congresso dos Estados Unidos[editar | editar código-fonte]

Senador Edward Brooke, 2004
Senador Strom Thurmond, 1993
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Senador Howard H. Baker, Jr. 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [60]
Lloyd Bentsen 1999 Bill Clinton
Edward Brooke 2004 George W. Bush
John Chafee 2000 Bill Clinton Postumamente
Shirley Chisholm 2015 Barack Obama Postumamente[19]
John Dingell 2014 Barack Obama
Bob Dole 1997 Bill Clinton
Dante B. Fascell 1998 Bill Clinton
J. William Fulbright 1993 Bill Clinton
Barry Goldwater 1986 Ronald Reagan
Lee H. Hamilton 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Henry Hyde 2007 George W. Bush
Daniel Inouye 2013 Barack Obama Postumamente[27]
Henry M. Jackson 1984 Ronald Reagan Postumamente
Jacob K. Javits 1983 Ronald Reagan
Barbara Jordan 1994 Bill Clinton
Walter Judd 1981 Ronald Reagan
Jack Kemp 2009 Barack Obama Postumamente[14]
Edward Kennedy 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Tom Lantos 2008 George W. Bush
John Lewis 2011 Barack Obama [10]
Clare Boothe Luce 1983 Ronald Reagan
Richard Lugar 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Mike Mansfield 1989 George H.W. Bush
George McGovern 2000 Bill Clinton
Robert H. Michel 1994 Bill Clinton
Barbara Mikulski 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Abner J. Mikva 2014 Barack Obama
Patsy Mink 2014 Barack Obama Postumamente
George J. Mitchell 1999 Bill Clinton
G. V. (Sonny) Montgomery 2005 George W. Bush
Daniel Patrick Moynihan 2000 Bill Clinton
Ed Muskie 1981 Ronald Reagan
Gaylord Nelson 1995 Bill Clinton
Tip O'Neill 1991 George H.W. Bush
Claude Pepper 1989 George H.W. Bush
Edward Roybal 2014 Barack Obama Postumamente
Margaret Chase Smith 1989 George H.W. Bush
Strom Thurmond 1993 Bill Clinton
Mo Udall 1996 Bill Clinton
Carl Vinson 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson Premiado com Distinção

Presidentes dos Estados Unidos[editar | editar código-fonte]

Former President Ronald Reagan, January 13, 1993
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
John F. Kennedy 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson 35º Presidente; prêmio póstumo[61]
Lyndon B. Johnson 9 de junho de 1980 Jimmy Carter 36tº Presidente; prêmio póstumo[62]
Ronald Reagan 13 de janeiro de 1993 George H.W. Bush 40º Presidente; Premiado com Distinção[63]
Gerald Ford 9 de agosto de 1999 Bill Clinton 38º Presidente[2]
Jimmy Carter 1999 August 9 Bill Clinton 39º Presidente[2]
George H. W. Bush 2011 February 15 Barack Obama 41º Presidente[10]
Bill Clinton 20 de novembro de 2013 Barack Obama 42º Presidente; Premiado com Distinção[27]

Vice-presidentes dos Estados Unidos[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Nelson Rockefeller 10 de janeiro de 1977 Gerald Ford 41º Vice-presidente[64]
Hubert H. Humphrey 9 de junho de 1980 Jimmy Carter 38º Vice-presidente, póstumo[65]

Outras figuras políticas[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Eugene R. Black, Sr. 1969 Richard Nixon
James Brady 1996 Bill Clinton
Paul Bremer 2004 George W. Bush
McGeorge Bundy 1969 Richard Nixon
Peter Carington 6.º Barão Carrington 1988 Ronald Reagan
Leo Cherne 1984 Ronald Reagan
Javier Perez de Cuellar 1991 George H.W. Bush
Governador Luis A. Ferré 1991 George H.W. Bush
Arthur Flemming 1994 Bill Clinton
Paul Drabinski 1993 Bill Clinton
James P. Grant 1994 Bill Clinton
Ella T. Grasso 1981 Ronald Reagan Postumamente
William J. Hopkins 1971 Richard Nixon
Max Kampelman 1999 Bill Clinton
Robert W. Komer 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson
Irving Kristol 2002 George W. Bush
Aung San Suu Kyi 2000 Bill Clinton
Governador Herbert H. Lehman 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson Lehman morreu no dia antes da cerimônia, ea medalha foi entregue à viúva em 28 de janeiro de 1964[66]
Eugene M. Locke 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson
John Macy 1969 Richard Nixon
John J. McCloy 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson Premiado com Distinção
John McCone 1987 Ronald Reagan
George Meany 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson [67]
Jean Monnet 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson Premiado com Distinção
Governor Luis Muñoz-Marín 1963 John F. Kennedy Premiado com Distinção
Paul Nitze 1985 Ronald Reagan
Norman Podhoretz 2004 George W. Bush
George Robertson 2003 George W. Bush
Walt Rostow 1969 Richard Nixon
William Ruckelshaus 24 de novembro de 2015 Barack Obama [19]
Brent Scowcroft 1991 George H.W. Bush
Albert Shanker 1998 Bill Clinton Postumamente
Sargent Shriver 1994 Bill Clinton
Vernon Walters 1991 George H.W. Bush
William Webster 1991 George H.W. Bush
Simon Wiesenthal 2000 Bill Clinton
Whitney Young 1969 Richard Nixon

Religião[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, Arcebispo de Chicago 1996 Bill Clinton
Terence Cardinal Cooke, former Arcebispo de New York 1984 Ronald Reagan Postumamente
Sister M. Isolina Ferré 11 de agosto de 1999 Bill Clinton [2]
Billy Graham 1983 Ronald Reagan
Gordon B. Hinckley 23 de junho de 2004 George W. Bush [2]
Archbishop Iakovos of America 1980 Jimmy Carter
Reinhold Niebuhr 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Pope John XXIII 6 de dezembro de 1963 Lyndon B. Johnson Postumamente[68]
Pope John Paul II 4 de junho de 2004 George W. Bush [2]
Norman Vincent Peale 26 de março de 1984 Ronald Reagan [69]
Reverendo Gardner C. Taylor 9 de agosto de 2000 Bill Clinton [2]
Mother Teresa 1985 Ronald Reagan
Desmond Tutu, Arcebispo Emérito da Cidade do Cabo 12 de agosto de 2009 Barack Obama [14]

Ciência[editar | editar código-fonte]

Stephen Hawking, 2009
Destinatários Data Presidente Notas
John Bardeen 1977 Jimmy Carter
Rachel Carson 1980 Jimmy Carter Postumamente
Robert Coles 1998 Bill Clinton
Francis Collins 2007 George W. Bush
Jacques-Yves Cousteau 1985 Ronald Reagan
Mildred Dresselhaus 24 de novembro de 2014 Barack Obama
Stephen Hawking 2009 Barack Obama [14]
Clarence Johnson 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Mathilde Krim 2000 Bill Clinton
Joshua Lederberg 2006 George W. Bush
George Low 1985 Ronald Reagan Postumamente
Margaret Mead 1979 Jimmy Carter Postumamente[70]
Mario Molina 2013 Barack Obama [27]
Lewis Mumford 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
Simon Ramo 1983 Ronald Reagan
Edward Teller 2003 George W. Bush
Alan Tower Waterman 1963 John F. Kennedy
James D. Watson 1977 Jimmy Carter
James Q. Wilson 2003 George W. Bush

Exploração espacial[editar | editar código-fonte]

The Apollo 13 astronauts are awarded the medal by President Richard Nixon in 1970
Destinatários Data Missão Presidente Notas
Buzz Aldrin 1969 Astronauta da Apollo 11 Richard Nixon Condecorado com distinção
Neil Armstrong 1969 Astronauta da Apollo 11 Richard Nixon Condecorado com distinção
Michael Collins 1969 Astronauta da Apollo 11 Richard Nixon Condecorado com distinção
Fred Haise 1970 Astronauta da Apollo 13 Richard Nixon
Jim Lovell 1970 Astronauta da Apollo 13 Richard Nixon
Jack Swigert 1970 Astronauta da Apollo 13 Richard Nixon
George Abbey 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Gerald D. Griffin 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Gene Kranz 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Glynn Lunney 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
James W. McBarron II 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Edgar Mitchell 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
Siguard A Sjoberg 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon [71]
Milton L. Windler 1970 Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team Richard Nixon
John Glenn 2012 Mercury-Atlas 6 and STS-95 Barack Obama [24]
Katherine Johnson 2015 NASA Barack Obama [19]
Sally Ride 2013 Space Shuttle Challenger STS-7 and STS-41-G Barack Obama Postumamente[72]

Esportes[editar | editar código-fonte]

Destinatários Data Esporte Presidente Notas
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar 2016 Basquetebol Barack Obama
Hank Aaron 2002 Basebol George W. Bush
Muhammad Ali 2005 Boxe George W. Bush
Arthur Ashe 1993 Tênis Bill Clinton Postumamente
Ernie Banks 2013[27] Basebol Barack Obama
Yogi Berra 24 de novembro de 2015 Basebol Barack Obama Postumamente[19]
Earl Blaik 1986 Futebol americano Ronald Reagan
Paul "Bear" Bryant 1983 Futebol americano Ronald Reagan Postumamente
Roberto Clemente 2003 Basebol George W. Bush Postumamente
Joe DiMaggio 1977 Basebol Jimmy Carter
Billie Jean King 2009[14] Tênis Barack Obama
Robert J. H. Kiphuth 1963 Natação Lyndon B. Johnson Chosen by John F. Kennedy
Willie Mays 24 de novembro de 2015 Basebol Barack Obama [19]
Stan Musial 2011[10] Basebol Barack Obama
Jack Nicklaus 2005 Golf George W. Bush
Buck O'Neil 2006 Basebol George W. Bush
Jesse Owens 1977 Track Jimmy Carter
Arnold Palmer 2004 Golf George W. Bush
Richard Petty 1992 NASCAR George H.W. Bush
Frank Robinson 2005 Basebol George W. Bush
Jackie Robinson 26 de março de 1984 Basebol Ronald Reagan Postumamente[73]
Bill Russell 2011[10] Basketball Barack Obama
Charles Sifford 2014[11] Golf Barack Obama
Dean Smith 2013[27] Basketball Barack Obama
Pat Summitt 2012[24] Basketball Barack Obama
Ted Williams 1991 Basebol George H.W. Bush
John Wooden 2003 Basketball George W. Bush
Michael Jordan 2016 Basketball Barack Obama

Referências

  1. «Executive Order 11085». 22 de fevereiro de 1960. 
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Senado dos Estados Unidos. «Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients».  Erro de citação: Código <ref> inválido; o nome "senate" é definido mais de uma vez com conteúdos diferentes
  3. «Executive Order 9586». Federal Register. 10 de julho de 1945. 
  4. «Presidential Medal of Freedom Award». Senado dos Estados Unidos. 
  5. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, 6 de dezembro de 1963». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Mr. Ludwig Mien van der Rohe...THE PRESIDENT. Teacher, designer, master builder, he has conceived soaring structures of glass, steel and concrete which at once embody and evoke the distinctive qualities of our age.» 
  6. «Curriculum Vitae of I. M. Pei». Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. 
  7. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (9 de junho de 1980). «Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «NORMAN ROCKWELL...Normal Rockwell, represented by his son, Jarvis Rockwell. "Artist, illustrator and author, Norman Rockwell has portrayed the American scene with unrivaled freshness and clarity. Insight, optimism and good humor are the hallmarks of his artistic style. His vivid and affectionate portraits of our country and ourselves have become a beloved part of the American tradition."» 
  8. The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Georgia O'Keeffe (1887–1986)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 10, 1977» 
  9. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (9 de junho de 1980). «Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «But let me again congratulate each and every one of you. I regret that Irving Berlin, Alexander Calder, the late Alexander Calder, and Georgia O'Keeffe were unable to be represented here today. We will of course present their medals to them or to their families at a later date.» 
  10. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o «President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients». whitehouse.gov. The White House. 17 de novembro de 2010. 
  11. a b c d e f g h i j k l m «President Obama Announces the Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients». The White House. 10 de novembro de 2014. 
  12. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Gerald R. Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Martha Graham, October 14, 1976». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «[At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows:] The President of the United States of America Awards this Presidential Medal of Freedom With Distinction to Martha Graham. Dancer, teacher, and choreographer, Martha Graham has captivated the world with her magic and has left a legacy of imagination with all who have witnessed her talent. Her energy, creativity and daring have opened new doors of expression in dance. Her followers and friends adore her, and her country, the United States of America, is proud to proclaim her a brilliant star and a National treasure.» 
  13. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Lincoln Kirstein: Lincoln Kirstein is an author and entrepreneur who has honored and delighted Americans through his enormous contribution to ballet in our country. Through his commitment, two major institutions of American dance, the New York City Ballet and the School of American Ballet, were created and flourished. Developing and fostering appreciation for the arts have always depended on the energy, creativity, and commitment of individual citizens. Lincoln Kirstein stands tall as one of a select and treasured few in the world of American art.» 
  14. a b c d e f g h i j k l m «President Obama Names Medal of Freedom Recipients; 16 Agents of Change to Receive Top Civilian Honor». White House. July 30, 2009. 
  15. a b «NATION : Lucille Ball Gets Medal of Freedom». Los Angeles Times [S.l.: s.n.] 1989-07-06. 
  16. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «As a giant in the world of entertainment, James Cagney has left his mark not only on the film industry but on the hearts of all his fellow Americans. In some 60 years in entertainment, performing on stage and screen, he mastered drama and action adventure, as well as music and dance. One of his most remembered performances, as George M. Cohan in "Yankee Doodle Dandy," was a whirlwind singing and dancing film that inspired a Nation at war when it sorely needed a lift in spirit. James Cagney's professional and personal life has brought great credit to him and left unforgettable memories with millions who have followed his career.» 
  17. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Lyndon B. Johnson, XXXVI President of the United States: 1963–1969, Remarks at the Presentation of the 1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Mr. Walter Disney. THE PRESIDENT. Artist and impresario, in the course of entertaining an age, he has created an American folklore.» 
  18. a b Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Lyndon B. Johnson, XXXVI President of the United States: 1963–1969, Remarks at the Presentation of the 1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards, 26 de março de 1964». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Mr. Alfred Lunt and Miss Lynn Fontainne. THE PRESIDENT. A luminous partnership of artistic talents and personal devotion they have brilliantly enlivened and enriched the American stage.» 
  19. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q «President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom». The White House. 16 de novembro de 2015. 
  20. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (9 de junho de 1980). «Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «All of these are famous people, they're well-known throughout the world. But even including Vice Presidents and Presidents, noted singers and dancers and writers and ornithologists, I think the next would be the most famous of us all, including the one who reads this citation. I would like to ask Mrs. John Wayne to come forward. [At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows: THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AWARDS THIS PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM TO JOHN WAYNE. John Wayne was both an example and a symbol of true American grit and determination. Through his countless film roles, "The Duke" still leads millions on heroic adventures on behalf of fairness and justice. He embodies the enduring American values of individualism, relentless bravery and perseverance in pursuit of what is right. He was the quintessential patriot, and will especially be remembered whenever our Nation faces a challenge calling for steadfast courage.]» 
  21. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Louis L'Amour: Through his western novels, Louis L'Amour has played a leading role in shaping our national identity. His writings portrayed the rugged individual and the deep-seated values of those who conquered the American frontier. Starting out from humble beginnings, he has lived a fulfilling and adventurous life. An eminently successful writer, more than 100 million copies of his novels are in print, L'Amour's descriptions of America and Americans have added to our understanding of our past and reaffirmed our potential as an exploring, pioneering, and free people.» 
  22. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (9 de junho de 1980). «Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «Archibald MacLeish, represented by his nephew, Roderick MacLeish. "Poet and playwright, teacher and statesman, Archibald MacLeish has combined the vocation of man of letters with that of public spokesman. A poet of realities as well as dreams, his eloquent words are matched by his sensitive social conscience. He seeks truth inspired by love of his fellow men and of his country. We are proud to recognize his stature as a humanist, an artist, and an American."» 
  23. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (9 de junho de 1980). «Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «JAMES ALBERT MICHENER, "Author, teacher and popular historian, James Michener has entranced a generation with his compelling essays and novels. From 'Tales of the South Pacific,' to 'Centennial,' the prolific writings of this master storyteller have expanded the knowledge and enriched the lives of million."» 
  24. a b c d e f g h i j k l m «Albright, World War II hero among 13 to receive Presidential Medal of Freedom». CNN. 
  25. The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Marian Anderson (1897–1993)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received December 6, 1963» 
  26. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Ernest Jennings "Tennessee Ernie" Ford: Through his musical talents, warm personality, and quick "down-home" wit Tennessee Ernie Ford won the hearts of the American people. Ford's music, which revealed his character and soul to all who listened, inspired as well as entertained his audiences. His respect for traditional values, his strong faith in God, and his unlimited capacity for human kindness have greatly endeared him to his fellow countrymen. America is a Nation richer in spirit because of Tennessee Ernie Ford.» 
  27. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o «President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients». Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. August 8, 2013. 
  28. McFeatters, Ann (10 de julho de 2002). «Fred Rogers gets Presidential Medal of Freedom». Pittsburg Post-Gazette www.post-gazette.com [S.l.] «Intel Corp. co-founder Gordon Moore. Through the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Moore is a philanthropic leader in higher education, scientific research, the environment and San Francisco Bay Area projects.» 
  29. Vargas, Jose Antonio (10 de novembro de 2005). «At the White House, Prizes for 14 Champs,Medal of Freedom Ceremony Shows Ali as Fast as Ever». The Washington Post washingtonpost.com [S.l.] «Also honored yesterday...Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn, the men who in figuring out how to routinely and quickly transmit data over computer networks helped start a digital revolution» 
  30. «Net pioneers receive top honour». BBC News www.bbc.com [S.l.] 10 de novembro de 2005. «"Dr Cerf and Dr Kahn have been at the forefront of a digital revolution that has transformed global commerce, communication, and entertainment," read the citation for the medal.» 
  31. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Eunice Kennedy Shriver: With enormous conviction and unrelenting effort, Eunice Kennedy Shriver has labored on behalf of America's least powerful people, the mentally retarded. Over the last two decades, she has been on the forefront of numerous initiatives on the behalf of the mentally retarded, from creating day camps, to establishing research centers, to the founding of the Special Olympics. Her decency and goodness have touched the lives of many, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver deserves America's praise, gratitude, and love.» 
  32. The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Annie Wauneka (1910–1997)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received December 6, 1963» 
  33. a b c d e f g h Nixon, Richard (April 22, 1970). «Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Eight Journalists». Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. Arquivado desde o original em 2011-12-25. 
  34. a b Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (10 January 1977). «Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. 
  35. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Dr. Denton Cooley: In an outstanding professional career, Dr. Denton Cooley has distinguished himself time and again in the field of medicine. As one of this country's leading heart surgeons, he has charted new territory in his search for ways to prolong and enrich human life. His efforts have saved the lives not only of his own patients, but of those of many other doctors who have studied and mastered techniques developed by him. As a heart surgeon and as a creative, independent thinker, Dr. Denton Cooley is a force for innovation in American medicine.» 
  36. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (10 January 1977). «Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «WILL DURANT "Writer, historian and philosopher, Will Durant has provided an open window into the lives and thoughts of past ages. With the collaboration of his wife, Ariel, he has helped lead us through the past to the meaning of the present. An eloquent apostle of social order and individual freedom, he is an enemy of chaos, a friend and an invaluable guide to the millions of grateful readers."» 
  37. The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Marian Wright Edelman (1939 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received August 9, 2000» 
  38. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Dr. Hector Garcia: Dr. Hector Garcia's patriotism and community concern exemplify the meaning of good citizenship. His many community-building endeavors included his work as a founder and first National Chairman of the American G.I. Forum, a veterans' organization which has done much to improve the lot of Americans of Mexican descent. Over the years, he has faithfully represented our government on numerous occasions, overseas and domestically. Dr. Hector Garcia is a credit to his family and community, and to all Americans. Through his efforts, based on a deep belief in traditional American ideals, he has made this a better country.» 
  39. a b Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Mr. Ball: And now, Mr. President, let me present those who are to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Special Distinction....First, Mr. Ellsworth Bunker. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and diplomat, he has brought integrity, patience and a compassionate understanding of other men and nations to the service of the Republic under three Presidents.» 
  40. «President Bush Commemorates Foreign Policy Achievements and Presents Medal of Freedom to Ambassador Ryan Crocker». White House. January 15, 2009. 
  41. http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1984/22184b.htm
  42. Original Citation accompanying medal of Freedom issued December 11, 1946, signed by Acting Secretary of State Dean Acheson, reissued April 30, 1956 as signed by James F. Byrnes January 1, 1947, Thompson Family Archives.
  43. «White House Freedom Medal Set for Whittaker Chambers» New York Times [S.l.] February 22, 1984. 
  44. Sterling, Dorothy (9 de março de 1984). «http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/03/09/reviews/chambers-letter.html» New York Times [S.l.]  Ligação externa em |title= (Ajuda)
  45. Buckley Jr., William F. (August 6, 2001). «Witness and Friends» National Review [S.l.] 
  46. Stonor-Saunders, Frances (April 6, 2007). «Was Whittaker Chambers a hero or a traitor?» Telegraph [S.l.] 
  47. Edroso, Roy (30 de julho de 2009). «Medal of Freedom Recipients Announced, Include Tutu, Harvey Milk» Village Voice [S.l.] 
  48. «Whittaker Chambers». Encyclopedia Britannica. 
  49. Romero, Frances (August 12, 2009). «A Brief History of the Presidential Medal of Freedom» TIME magazine [S.l.] 
  50. «Announcement of the Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom». UCSB American President Project. 
  51. «Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom». Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. 26 de março de 1984. 
  52. Mayer, Catherine (January 13, 2009). «A Presidential Medal for Tony Blair». Time www.time.com [S.l.] «Later today in a ceremony in the East Room of the White House, Bush is set to dole out a Presidential Medal of Freedom to Blair.» 
  53. The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Chief,Wilma Mankiller (1945–2010)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 15, 1998» 
  54. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Mr. Gamal el-Sadat will accept for his father, the late President Anwar el-Sadat. President Anwar el-Sadat, as a soldier, led his country in war, but his greatest acts of courage came in pursuit of peace. He captured the imagination of people everywhere by taking the first great step toward achieving a lasting peace between Egypt and Israel. His humanity and sense of responsibility, even now that he is gone, remain a giant force for peace and stability in the world. Anwar el-Sadat was a peacemaker of monumental wisdom and tenderness who will remain forever a hero in the hearts of the American people.» 
  55. The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Justice Sandra Day O’Connor (1930 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received August 12, 2009» 
  56. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/07/20030723-9.html
  57. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «George Bush, XLI President of the United States: 1989–1993, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medals of Freedom and Presidential Citizen's Medals, July 3, 1991». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «this ceremony would not be complete without honoring three more American leaders, exceptional public servants who each contributed singularly to our success in the Gulf...Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney....As to Dick Cheney, Secretary Cheney not only oversaw one of the largest deployments of forces in American history but also worked hard at the beginning of the crisis to ensure that America would respond decisively to aggression. His effective testimony before the United States Congress helped all our fellow countrymen understand what was at stake in the Gulf. Working swiftly, yet skillfully, when time was truly of the essence, he traveled to Saudi Arabia and arranged for the first deployment of U.S. and coalition troops to that nation. And when war came America was ready, and Secretary Cheney's leadership contributed enormously to the victory.» 
  58. «Lady Bird Johnson Biography». Lbjlib.utexas.edu. , for date of award see The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Lady Bird Johnson (1912–2007)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 10, 1977» 
  59. The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Betty Ford (1918 – )...Presidential Medal of Freedom received November 18, 1991» 
  60. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Senator Howard H. Baker, Jr. The citation: As a Member of the United States Senate, one of the country's most powerful and influential citizens, and an individual whose character shines brightly as an example to others, Howard Baker has been a force for responsibility and civility on a generation of Americans. In his almost 20 years of service, he has earned the respect and admiration of his fellow citizens regardless of their political persuasion. As Majority Leader of the Senate, his quiet, cooperative style and keen legislative skills have honored America's finest traditions of enlightened political leadership and statesmanship.» 
  61. «Presidential Medal of Freedom – John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum». Jfklibrary.org. 6 de dezembro de 1963. 
  62. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (9 de junho de 1980). «Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «The President of the United States of America Awards This Presidential Medal of Freedom to Lyndon Baines Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson cared deeply about our country, its citizens, and the condition of their lives. He knew well how to translate concern into action, and action into a national agenda. He did more than any American of his time to break the chains of injustice, illiteracy, poverty and sickness. We are a greater society because President Johnson lived among us and worked for us.» 
  63. «Remarks on presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to President Ronald Reagan-President George Bush-Transcript». The White House: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. 18 de janeiro de 1993. 
  64. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (9 de junho de 1980). «Gerald Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 10, 1977». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «Vice President Nelson A. Rockefeller...Patriot, philanthropist, patron of the arts, diplomat, Governor of New York, Vice President of the United States, his long years of service to his country have yielded governmental, economic, social and cultural contributions beyond measures."» 
  65. Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (9 de junho de 1980). «Jimmy Carter, XXXIX President of the United States: 1977–1981, Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony, June 9, 1980». The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. «On occasion in our lives, a certain person touches the heartstrings of our existence and inspires us all in a special, deeply human way. I'd now like to ask the wife of Hubert Humphrey to come forward. [Applause] If you'll permit me an aside, I think the applause is not only for the honoree but for Muriel Humphrey as well, who shared so much. At this point, the President read the citation, the text of which follows: The President of the United States of America Awards this Presidential Medal of Freedom to Hubert H. Humphrey. Hubert H. Humphrey awed us with the scope of his knowledge; he inspired us with the depth of his sympathy; he moved us with his passion for social justice; he delighted us with his joyous love of his fellow human beings. He brought honor and enthusiasm to everything he did. He ennobled the political process.» 
  66. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Mr. Ball: Governor Herbert H. Lehman. I know that we were all deeply saddened to hear yesterday of the death of this great citizen. Mr. President, you may wish to read his citation in absentia. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and statesman, he has used wisdom and compassion as the tools of government and has made politics the highest form of public service. Later, on January 28, 1964, the medal for Herbert H. Lehman was presented to Mrs. Lehman at a special ceremony at the White House.» 
  67. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Mr. Ball: Mr. George Meany. THE PRESIDENT. Citizen and national leader, in serving the cause of labor, he has greatly served the cause of his Nation and of freedom throughout the world.» 
  68. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «[President Johnson then resumed speaking.] I have also determined to confer the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously on another noble man whose death we mourned 6 months ago: His Holiness, Pope John XXIII.» 
  69. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Dr. Norman Vincent Peale: With a deep understanding of human behavior and an appreciation for God's role in our lives, Dr. Norman Vincent Peale helped originate a philosophy of happiness. Through the American Foundation of Religion and Psychiatry and his many books, Dr. Peale became an advocate of the joy of life, helping millions find new meaning in their lives. Few Americans have contributed so much to the personal happiness of their fellow citizens as Dr. Norman Vincent Peale.» 
  70. The National First Ladies Library (16 de novembro de 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF) (Canton Ohio [s.n.]). p. 3. «Dr. Margaret Mead (1901–1978)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 19, 1979» 
  71. «The American Presidency Project – ''Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team in Houston – April 18, 1970». Presidency.ucsb.edu. April 18, 1970. 
  72. «President Obama Announces Sally Ride as a Recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom – April 18, 1970». Office of the Press Secretary. May 20, 2013. 
  73. Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. «Ronald Reagan, XL President of the United States: 1981–1989, Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 26 de março de 1984». The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. «Mrs. Jackie Robinson will accept for her late husband, Mr. Jackie Robinson. As an individual of courage and conviction, and as a skilled and dedicated athlete, Jackie Robinson stood tall among his peers. His courage opened the door of professional sports to all Americans when, in 1947, he became the first black baseball player in the major leagues. He bravely demonstrated to all that skill and sportsmanship, not race or ethnic background, are the qualities by which athletes should be judged. In doing so, he struck a mighty blow for equality, freedom, and the American way of life. Jackie Robinson was a good citizen, a great man, and a true American champion.» 

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