Racismo científico

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Racismo biológico ou racismo científico é a crença pseudocientífica de que existem evidências empíricas que apoiam ou justificam o racismo, a discriminação racial ou a inferioridade ou superioridade racial.[1][2][3] O racismo científico recorre a conceitos de antropologia, antropometria craniometria e outras disciplinas ou pseudo-disciplinas para propor tipologias que apoiem a classificação das populações humanas em raças fisicamente distintas, que possam ser classificadas como superiores ou inferiores.[4] Atualmente as noções de racismo científico não são consideradas ciência e o termo é usado de forma pejorativa para se referir a ideas pseudocientíficas.[2][3]

O racismo científico foi relativamente comum no período entre o século XVII e o fim da I Guerra Mundial. Embora a partir da segunda metade do século XX tenha sido considerado obsoleto e desacreditado, em alguns meios continuou a ser usado para apoiar ou legitimar a ideias racistas, baseadas na crença de que existem categorias raciais e raças hierarquicamente inferiores e superiores.[4] Após o fim da II Guerra Mundial o passou a ser denunciado em termos formais.[5] Os avanços na genética populacional humana mostraram que as diferenças genéticas são praticamente todas graduais.[6]

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Referências

  1. "Ostensibly scientific": cf. Theodore M. Porter, Dorothy Ross (eds.) 2003.The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 7, The Modern Social Sciences Cambridge University Press, p. 293 "Race has long played a powerful popular role in explaining social and cultural traits, often in ostensibly scientific terms"; Adam Kuper, Jessica Kuper (eds.), The Social Science Encyclopedia (1996), "Racism", p. 716: "This [sc. scientific] racism entailed the use of 'scientific techniques', to sanction the belief in European and American racial Superiority"; Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Questions to Sociobiology (1998), "Race, theories of", p. 18: "Its exponents [sc. of scientific racism] tended to equate race with species and claimed that it constituted a scientific explanation of human history"; Terry Jay Ellingson, The myth of the noble savage (2001), 147ff. "In scientific racism, the racism was never very scientific; nor, it could at least be argued, was whatever met the qualifications of actual science ever very racist" (p. 151); Paul A. Erickson, Liam D. Murphy, A History of Anthropological Theory (2008), p. 152: "Scientific racism: Improper or incorrect science that actively or passively supports racism".
  2. a b Gould, Stephen Jay (1981). The Mismeasure of Man. New York, NY: W W Norton and Co. pp. 28–29. ISBN 0-393-01489-4. Few tragedies can be more extensive than the stunting of life, few injustices deeper than the denial of an opportunity to strive or even to hope, by a limit imposed from without, but falsely identified as lying within. 
  3. a b Kurtz, Paul (setembro de 2004). «Can the Sciences Help Us to Make Wise Ethical Judgments?». Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Skeptical Inquirer. Consultado em 1 de dezembro de 2007.. Cópia arquivada em 23 de novembro de 2007. There have been abundant illustrations of pseudoscientific theories-monocausal theories of human behavior that were hailed as "scientific"-that have been applied with disastrous results. Examples: ... Many racists today point to IQ to justify a menial role for blacks in society and their opposition to affirmative action. 
  4. a b Cf. Patricia Hill Collins, Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment (2nd ed., 2000), Glossary, p. 300: "Scientific racism was designed to prove the inferiority of people of color"; Simon During, Cultural studies: a critical introduction (2005), p. 163: "It [sc. scientific racism] became such a powerful idea because ... it helped legitimate the domination of the globe by whites"; David Brown and Clive Webb, Race in the American South: From Slavery to Civil Rights (2007), p. 75: "...the idea of a hierarchy of races was driven by an influential, secular, scientific discourse in the second half of the eighteenth century and was rapidly disseminated during the nineteenth century".
  5. UNESCO, The Race Question, p. 8
  6. Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (2001). Genes, Peoples and Languages, p. 30. Penguin Books, London. ISBN 9780865475298.